Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

224 results found
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Superficial epigastric vein

The superficial epigastric vein (TA: vena epigastrica superficialis) is an important tributary of the great saphenous vein that drains the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the level of the umbilicus. The superficial epigastric vein drains into the great saphenous vein at the saphenous openin...
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Interstitial cells of Cajal

The interstitial cells of Cajal are mesenchymal cells closely apposed to neural and smooth muscle cells of the gut. They form a heterogeneous group with differing ultrastructure and functions. One cell type has an ancillary neural function as a gastrointestinal pacemaker, generating electrical s...
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Sphincter (disambiguation)

A sphincter (TA: musculus sphincter) is a term used in anatomy to refer a ring of muscle which narrows a tube or closes off a bodily orifice 1. anal sphincter ​external anal sphincter internal anal sphincter hepatic sphincter esophageal sphincter lower esophageal sphincter upper esophagea...
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Aerodigestive tract

The aerodigestive tract is a non-TA descriptive collective term for the respiratory tract and proximal portion of the digestive tract. As it is a non-standard term, its precise components vary somewhat with the context in which the term is being employed. Terminology Definitions of what precis...
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Persistent descending mesocolon

Persistent descending mesocolon is defined as the failure of fusion of the mesentery of the descending colon with the lateral and posterior parietal peritoneum 1. Gross anatomy Persistent descending mesocolon is a rare congenital anomaly, in which the primitive dorsal mesocolon does not fuse w...
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Marginal artery (disambiguation)

The marginal artery may refer to several different arteries in the body, including two different coronary vessels: callosomarginal artery (CNS) marginal artery (of Drummond) obtuse marginal artery (cardiac) right marginal artery (cardiac)
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Viscera

The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1. Splanchnology...
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Intraperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember which organs are intraperitoneal is: SALTD SPRSS (pronounced 'salted spurs') Mnemonic S: stomach A: appendix L: liver T: transverse colon D: duodenum (first part) S: small intestines (jejunum and ileum) P: pancreas (only tail) R: rectum (upper third) S: s...
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Perineal body

The perineal body, also known as the central tendon of the perineum, (TA: corpus perineale) is a key midline fibromuscular structure, with important muscular attachments, which acts to stabilize the structures of the pelvis and perineum. It is located between the anal canal and the vagina, or in...
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Mesorectal lymph nodes

Mesorectal lymph nodes refers to lymph nodes that are present in the mesorectal fascia. Their assessment is important in the staging of colorectal tumors such as rectal cancer and anal cancer.  Distribution  According to one study, the majority of nodes were located in the proximal two-thirds ...
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Horseshoe-shaped (disambiguation)

Several normal anatomical structures and rare organ variants have been described as being horseshoe-shaped. Organ anomalies horseshoe kidney horseshoe lung horseshoe adrenal horseshoe appendix horseshoe pancreas 1 Horseshoe-shaped organs hyoid bone limbic lobe supramarginal gyrus tymp...
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Horseshoe appendix

A horseshoe appendix is an extremely rare variant of the vermiform appendix, in which the appendix arises from the cecum and curves back on itself to re-insert into the cecum, similar to a semicircular canal in the inner ear. Epidemiology Anatomic variation of the appendix is extremely rare. I...
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Coronary ligament (liver)

The coronary ligament is a peritoneal ligament complex of the liver which encloses the bare area of the liver. Gross anatomy The coronary ligament is formed by the reflection of the peritoneum from the undersurface of the diaphragm onto the superior and posterior surfaces to the right lobe of ...
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Endopelvic fascia

The endopelvic fascia is the enveloping connective tissue network for the pelvic viscera, suspending, supporting and fusing the pelvic organs to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis, which itself inserts onto the pelvic sidewalls and pubic bones. The major anterior component is the pubovesical li...
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H and M lines (pelvic floor)

The H and M lines are reference lines for the pelvic floor on imaging studies and help detect and grade pelvic floor prolapse on defecography studies. The H line is drawn from the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis to the posterior aspect of the anorectal junction, and represents the diamet...
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Duodenal bulb

The duodenal bulb refers to a proximal-most portion of the duodenum closest to the stomach and for most of the D1 segment of the duodenum. It usually has a length of about 5 cm.  It commences at the gastric pylorus and ends at the neck of the gallbladder. It is located posterior to the liver and...
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Enteric nervous system

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a general term that refers to the vast network of neurons that supply the gastrointestinal system. It is part of the autonomic nervous system and allows the gastrointestinal system to act independently from the brain and spinal cord.
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Myenteric plexus

The myenteric plexus (also known as the Auerbach plexus) (plural: plexuses) refers to a network of nerves between the layers of the muscular propria in the gastrointestinal system. Among other things, the plexus helps regulate peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract. The plexus is part of the...
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Pubococcygeal line

The pubococcygeal line (PCL) is a reference line for the pelvic floor on imaging studies and helps detect and grade pelvic floor prolapse in defecography studies. It is defined as a line that joins the inferior border of the symphysis pubis to the final coccygeal joint and it is drawn in a midli...
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Left inframesocolic space

The left inframesocolic space is a component of the inframesocolic space bounded superiorly by the attachment of the transverse mesocolon, to the left by the mesentery of the descending colon, to the right border by the root of the small bowel mesentery. It is quadrilateral in shape and is large...
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Right inframesocolic space

The right inframesocolic space is a component of the inframesocolic space bounded by the transverse colon anterosuperiorly, the mesentery of the ascending colon on the right, the root of the small bowel mesentery on the left and the apex lying inferiorly at the ileocecal junction. It is smaller ...
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Left paracolic gutter

The left paracolic gutter is a component of the left inframesocolic space partially separated from the left subphrenic spaces by the phrenicocolic ligament. It is smaller than the right paracolic gutter. Both paracolic spaces are in continuity with the pelvic peritoneal spaces.
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Right paracolic gutter

The right paracolic gutter is a component of the right inframesocolic space continuous superiorly with the right subhepatic and right subphrenic spaces. It is larger than the left paracolic gutter, which is partially separated from the left subphrenic spaces by the phrenicocolic ligament. Both p...
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Ampulla (disambiguation)

Ampulla (plural: ampullae) is an anatomical term used for tubular structures with a short segmental bulbous dilatation: ampulla (fallopian tube) ampulla (lacrimal system) ampulla (esophagus): a.k.a. phrenic ampulla ampulla (rectum) ampulla (semicircular ducts) ampulla (spleen) ampulla of ...
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Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
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Supraduodenal artery

The supraduodenal artery (SDA) is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA). It arises soon after the origin of the GDA posterior to the first part of the duodenum and supplies the anterosuperior part of the first and second parts of the duodenum, contributing to the rich arterial anastomotic ...
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Fossa of Landzert

The fossa of Landzert is a congenital mesentery defect. It is present in about 2% of autopsy series and is formed due to non-fusion of the inferior mesentery to the parietal peritoneum. It is found to the left of the fourth part of the duodenum. The inferior mesenteric vein runs along its (ante...
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Fossa of Waldeyer

The fossa of Waldeyer, also known as the mesentericoparietal fossa, is a congenital mesentery defect. It is found in about 1% of autopsy series and is formed due to non-fusion of the ascending mesocolon to the posterior parietal peritoneum. The superior mesenteric artery runs along its (anterio...
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Esophageal lymph node stations

Esophageal lymph node stations are those nodal stations in the neck, chest, and abdomen considered regional (rather than distant) for the purpose of esophageal cancer staging. This list reflects the map provided in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging M...
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Pancreaticoduodenal veins

The pancreaticoduodenal veins accompany their corresponding arteries and act to drain the head of the pancreas and duodenum. Gross anatomy There are four small pancreaticoduodenal veins: posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein posterior inferio...
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Phrenicocolic ligament

The phrenicocolic ligament, also known as Hensing's ligament, is a peritoneal ligament extending from the splenic flexure of the colon to the diaphragm 5. Gross anatomy The phrenicocolic ligament separates the left paracolic gutter from the left supramesocolic space. It is continuous with the ...
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Ligamentum teres (abdomen)

The ligamentum teres or round ligament is the fibrous cord formed by the obliterated fetal umbilical vein that runs in the free edge of the falciform ligament from the umbilicus into the left lobe of the liver.  
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Umbilical folds

The umbilical folds are a series of 5 folds of parietal peritoneum on the deep surface of the anterior abdominal wall and consist of: a single midline median umbilical fold, bilateral medial umbilical folds, and bilateral lateral umbilical folds
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Umbilicus

The umbilicus is the fibrous remnant of the fetal attachment of the umbilical cord after birth. Gross anatomy All layers of the anterior abdominal wall fuse at the umbilical ring, a small round defect in the linea alba located just inferior to the midpoint between the xiphoid process of the st...
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Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
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Agenesis of the appendix

Agenesis of the appendix is extremely rare, with an incidence at surgery of approximately 1 in 100,000 laparotomies 1. It is most commonly due to a sporadic etiology. However in the rare genetic condition, familial apple peel jejunal atresia, absence of the appendix is a recognized feature. Also...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural: isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (c...
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Anterior left subphrenic space

The anterior left subphrenic space is a potential space between the fundus of the stomach and the left hemidiaphragm 1,2. Gross anatomy The anterior left subphrenic space is a subcompartment of the left supramesocolic space. Boundaries medial: falciform ligament (separates it from the anter...
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Posterior left subphrenic space

The posterior left subphrenic space (also known as the perisplenic space) is a potential space surrounding the spleen. Gross anatomy The posterior left subphrenic space is continuous with the anterior left subphrenic space, both are subcompartments of the left supramesocolic space. Boundaries...
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Anterior left perihepatic space

The anterior left perihepatic (or subhepatic) space is a potential space located between the diaphragm and the anterosuperior aspect of the left lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy The anterior left perihepatic space is separated from the posterior left perihepatic space by the left lobe of the ...
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Posterior left perihepatic space

The posterior left perihepatic space (also known as the subhepatic space or gastrohepatic recess) is a potential space that lies between the inferior aspect of the left lobe of the liver and the lesser omentum posteriorly. Gross anatomy The posterior left perihepatic space is separated from th...
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Anterior right subhepatic space

The anterior right subhepatic space is a potential space between the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver and the transverse colon. Gross anatomy The anterior right subhepatic space is separated from Morison’s pouch (also known as the posterior right subhepatic space) by the transve...
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Left supramesocolic space

The left supramesocolic space is an arbitrary subdivision of the supramesocolic space, which lies between the diaphragm and the transverse colon 1,2. Gross anatomy The left supramesocolic space is separated from the right supramesocolic space by the falciform ligament 3. The left supramesocoli...
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Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial...
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Para-aortic lymph nodes

Para-aortic lymph nodes (often shortened to para-aortic nodes) are part of the retroperitoneal nodes, and are located anterior to the left lumbar trunk 1 and above and below the left renal vein prior to the flow of lymph into the cisterna chyli 2-4.
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Perineal membrane

The perineal membrane is a thin triangular horizontal layer of dense tough fascia in the perineum which divides the urogenital triangle into superficial (inferior) and deep (superior) perineal pouches. It attaches to the inferior margins of the ischiopubic rami, enclosing the anterior portion o...
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Celiacomesenteric trunk

The celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2....
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Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to: vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (esophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimate...
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Left perihepatic space

The left perihepatic space (also known as the left subhepatic space) is a potential space located between the stomach and the visceral surface of left lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy The left perihepatic space can be further subdivided into anterior and posterior spaces. It is a subcompartmen...
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Right supramesocolic space

The right supramesocolic space is an arbitrary subdivision of the supramesocolic space, which lies between the diaphragm and the transverse colon. Gross anatomy The right supramesocolic space is separated from the left supramesocolic space by the falciform ligament, and can be divided into thr...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Gastric bubble

The gastric bubble is a radiolucent rounded area generally nestled under the left hemidiaphragm representing gas in the fundus of the stomach. On a lateral radiograph, the gastric bubble is usually located between the abdominal wall and spine. It can be seen on chest or abdominal plain films. I...
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Anal triangle

The anal triangle forms the posterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's three corners are defined by the tip of the coccyx posteriorly and both ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterior border is the transverse perineal muscles and the posterolateral borders are the sa...
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Right subhepatic space

The right subhepatic space, or hepatorenal pouch, lies between the upper pole of the right kidney and the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the right supramesocolic space. The space can be further subdivided in to two other spaces by it...
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Short gastric arteries

The short gastric arteries are a group of short arteries arising from the terminal splenic artery and the left gastroepiploic artery which supply the fundus of the stomach along it's greater curvature. The vessels are short in length, variable in number and course through the gastrosplenic liga...
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Preaortic lymph nodes

The preaortic lymph nodes are part of the abdominopelvic lymph nodes. They include three main groups:  celiac nodes drainage from gastric nodes, hepatic nodes and pancreaticosplenic nodes superior mesenteric nodes drainage from mesenteric nodes inferior mesenteric nodes drainage from mesen...
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General topography of the abdomen

To facilitate clinical description, the general topography of the abdomen is divided into four quadrants or nine regions by lines on the surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The four quadrants are created by vertical and horizontal lines passing through the umbilicus, whereas the nine regions...
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Magenstrasse

The term magenstrasse refers to a tubular portion of the stomach adjacent to the lesser curve of the stomach. It is a favored route by food, fluids and drugs as they flow from the cardia/fundus to the gastric outlet 1. Magenstrasse is an old German anatomical term that has come back into common...
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Mesorectal fascia

The mesorectal fascia is a layer of connective tissue enclosing the perirectal fat that surrounds the rectum. It is an important anatomical structure in rectal cancer staging, as it forms the circumferential resection margin for the non-peritonealised portion of the rectum. Summary location: e...
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Inferior Rectal Artery

The inferior rectal artery is an artery arising from the internal pudendal artery that supplies the lower anal canal including the external anal sphincter. Summary origin: from internal pudendal artery, just after it enters the pudendal canal course: runs anteromedially through the ischioanal...
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Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Lymphoceles of the thoracic duct, also known as thoracic duct cysts, are lymph-filled collections/dilatations that can arise from any portion of the thoracic duct. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment...
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Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the inferior vena cava type 2: localized, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare, extrahepatic or intrahepatic, anatomical abnormalities shunting blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system and, thus, avoiding passage through the hepatic acinus. Terminology The term “portosystemic shunt” can be used to refer t...
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Internal iliac lymph nodes

The internal iliac lymph nodes (often shortened to internal iliac nodes) are the lymph nodes found adjacent to the internal iliac artery and its branches and drain the regions supplied by these vessels. This encompasses a large area from the genitalia anteriorly, the psoas muscle posteriorly and...
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Root of the mesentery

The root of the mesentery, or root of the small bowel mesentery to be exact, is the origin of the mesentery of the small intestine (i.e. jejunum and ileum) from the posterior parietal peritoneum, attached to the posterior abdominal wall. It descends from the duodenojejunal flexure at a 45 degree...
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Left subphrenic space

The left subphrenic space is a subcompartment of the left supramesocolic space located between the diaphragm and, the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen and gastric fundus. It is described to have anterior and posterior parts without clear delineation1. Boundaries  medially: falciform ligame...
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Transpyloric plane

The transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's plane, is an imaginary axial plane located midway between the jugular notch and superior border of pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of L1 vertebral body. It an important landmark as many key structures are visualized at this level, altho...
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Duodenojejunal flexure

The duodenojejunal (DJ) flexure or junction is the anatomical border between the duodenum and the jejunum. Gross anatomy The duodenojejunal flexure is located anterolateral to the aorta at the level of the upper border of the second lumbar vertebra. It makes a sharp turn anteroinferiorly to be...
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Ligament of Treitz

The ligament of Treitz, also known as the suspensory ligament of the duodenum, is a double fold of peritoneum suspending the duodenojejunal flexure from the retroperitoneum. It is often used interchangeably with duodenojejunal flexure. Anatomy The ligament of Treitz comprises two parts:  acc...
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Anal margin

Anal margin or perianal skin is arbitrarily defined as the circle of skin tissue within a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge, consisting of keratinizing squamous epithelial tissue containing hair follicles. A radius of 5 cm approximately equates to a circle of area of 78.5 cm2 centered on the an...
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Anal verge

The anal verge is part of the anal region and consists of a band of squamous epithelial tissue which lacks hair follicles and extends from the intersphincteric groove to the perianal skin. 
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond-shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
Article

Rectovesical pouch

Rectovesical pouch is the forward reflection of the peritoneum from the middle third of the rectum to the upper part of the bladder in males. Gross anatomy The rectovesical pouch is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity and usually contains loops of small bowel or sigmoid colon. It is 7.5 c...
Article

Omega sign (disambiguation)

The omega sign can refer to a number of different anatomical structures or signs: omega sign (epiglottitis) omega sign (hand bump on the precentral gyrus)
Article

Inferior mesenteric vein

The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal portion of the colon as well as the rectum (i.e. the hindgut).  Gross anatomy Origin and course The inferior mesenteric vein drains the mesenteric arcade of the hindgut (comprising of distal transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon). ...
Article

Normal esophageal contours on barium swallow

There are a number of normal esophageal contours or impressions that are encountered when performing a barium swallow. It is important to be able to differentiate normal contours and their variants, as well as contours that may indicate disease. Below is a list of anatomical structures that may ...
Article

Right gastric artery

The right gastric artery (RGA) is a non-hepatic branch of the hepatic arteries that supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach. Gross Anatomy Course The right gastric artery usually branches from one of the hepatic arteries (common, proper or left hepatic). It is the most common non-hepatic...
Article

Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA arises from the splenic artery, and runs within the gastrosplenic ligament. It then runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the...
Article

Right gastroepiploic artery

The right gastroepiploic artery (RGA) arises from the gastroduodenal artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the right gastroepiploic artery and the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Gross Anatomy Course The RGA passes between the first part of the duodenum and the pancreas, ...
Article

Internal oblique muscle

The internal oblique muscle is one of the muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. Inferiorly, it contributes towards the formation of the inguinal ligament. Summary origin: originates along the whole length of the lumbar fascia, from the anterior two-thirds of the intermediate line of t...
Article

Right subphrenic space

The right subphrenic space (a.k.a. right anterior space, right subdiaphragmatic space) is a potential space that lies between the right lobe of the liver and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Gross anatomy The space is a subcompartment of the supracolic compartment. It reaches as far as t...
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Paravesical space

The paravesical spaces are paired avascular spaces of the pelvis. The paravesical spaces generally contain fat, but can become filled with ascites, blood, or other substances during pathological processes. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: lateral umbilical folds inferior: pubocervical fasc...
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Spleen size (pediatric)

The spleen size varies with a child's age. The three numbers below represent the 10th percentile, median, and 90th percentile for the long axis of the spleen (cm) 1-3: 0-3 months: (3.3, 4.5, 5.8 cm) 3-6 months: (4.9, 5.3, 6.4 cm) 6-12 months: (5.2, 6.2, 6.8 cm) 1-2 years: (5.4, 6.9, 7.5 cm)...
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Lateral fossa

The lateral fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space that lie between the lateral umbilical folds and the lateral parietal peritoneum. The lateral fossae are the smallest of the anterior paravesical fossae, and typically partially contain the cecum and/or sigmoid col...
Article

Medial inguinal fossa

The medial inguinal fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the medial umbilical folds and the lateral umbilical folds. The fossae are contained within the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The right medial inguinal fossa typically partially contains the ...
Article

Supravesical fossa

The supravesical fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the median umbilical fold and the medial umbilical folds. It partially overlies the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The supravesical fossae are usually occupied by small bowel loops and the urinar...
Article

Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anter...
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Medial umbilical folds

The medial umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall formed by the underlying medial umbilical ligaments running from the pelvis to the umbilicus. The medial umbilical ligaments are anatomical remnants of the obliterated ...
Article

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...

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