Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

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Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system (also known as the lymphoid system or systema lymphoideum in Terminologia Anatomica) is the collective term given to the lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissues in the body 1,4. Terminology Occasionally the lymphatic system is considered with the reticuloendothelial system ...

Lymphoid organ

The lymphoid organs represent sites in the body in which lymphocytes are concentrated. They are divided into primary and secondary lymphoid organs 1. Primary Primary lymphoid organs are responsible for the generation of new lymphocytes: bone marrow thymus Secondary Secondary (a.k.a. periph...

Lymph nodes

The lymph nodes (commonly shortened to nodes, and known as nodus lymphoideus in TA 4) collectively form one of the secondary lymphoid organs. Macroscopically, a normal lymph node is a small ellipsoid structure, approximately 0.1 to 2.5 cm in maximal length 2,3. Nodes often possess a reniform mo...

Adenoid tonsil

The adenoid tonsils, or often just simply the adenoids (also known as the nasopharyngeal or pharyngeal tonsils), are paired foci of lymphatic tissue located on the superoposterior wall of the nasopharynx and form part of Waldeyer's ring.

Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial...

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...


The human body regularly encounters harmful micro-organisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defenses to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as immunity, executed by the immune system. This system also contributes to antioncogenic mechanisms. Type...

Retrorenal spleen

Retrorenal spleen refers to variant position of the spleen, when its inferior portion lies posterior to the upper pole of the left kidney. This normal variant occurs in ~20% of patients, with the finding more common in patients who lie supine 1. Recognition of this variant is important to avoi...


The spleen is an organ of the hematological system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and hematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by th...

Reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) comprises a number of tissues: spleen bone marrow liver Kupffer cells


Splenunculi, also known as supernumerary spleens, accessory spleens, or splenules, are small nodules of spleen that are separate from the rest of the organ.  Epidemiology They are common, seen in up to 16% of CTs of the abdomen and up to 30% of autopsies 2.  Pathology Accessory spleens are c...

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