Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,040 results found
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Nail unit (anatomy)

The nail unit or nail apparatus refers to a group of distal digital structures involved in the function and support of the nail plate. Gross anatomy Structures of the distal phalanx composing the nail unit include 1: nail plate nail matrix nail bed periungual soft tissues eponychium (cuti...
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Accessory muscles of respiration

Accessory muscles of respiration refer to muscles that provide assistance to the main breathing muscles, mainly when additional power is needed, for example during exercise or those with airway pathologies (e.g. COPD) 1,2. During normal quiet breathing, inspiration is an active process primaril...
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Basivertebral nerve

The basivertebral nerve supplies the vertebral endplates and can be a target for treating back pain.  Gross anatomy The basivertebral nerve is a paired nerve arising from the sinuvertebral nerve. It ascends from its origin to enter the spinal canal, traversing centrally 1. It courses with the ...
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Fibulotalocalcaneal ligament

The fibulotalocalcaneal ligament is part of the deep crural fascia and runs medially from the posteromedial border of the lateral malleolus (anterior malleolar groove) with two sheet-like laminae that insert on the superolateral surface of the calcaneus and the lateral tubercle of the posterior ...
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Scapulothoracic bursa

Scapulothoracic bursae refer to a number of bursae that allow for the gliding movement of the scapulothoracic joint. Two major bursae have been reliably described 1,3: infraserratus (scapulothoracic) bursa: between the serratus anterior muscle and the chest wall supraserratus (subscapularis) ...
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Hair

Hair (TA: pilus/pili) remains important physiologically and psychologically for humans. The hair shaft develops from a structure known as the hair follicle. Each hair has an arrector pili muscle and both sensory and sympathetic neural connections. Gross anatomy The hair shaft (TA: stipes pili)...
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Talar tilt

Talar tilt is a measurement of the angle between the talus and the distal tibia, used in the assessment of ankle instability and ankle osteoarthritis (OA). Usage Talar tilt is an important measurement in the assessment of ankle osteoarthritis. It is measured as part of the Kellgren and Lawrenc...
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Superficial epigastric vein

The superficial epigastric vein (TA: vena epigastrica superficialis) is an important tributary of the great saphenous vein that drains the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the level of the umbilicus. The superficial epigastric vein drains into the great saphenous vein at the saphenous openin...
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Long head of biceps tendon

The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) is the proximal tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle and encircles the humeral head on its course. It has an intraarticular extrasynovial and an extraarticular portion. Summary location: shoulder insertion: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula...
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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves (cranial nerves III-XII and spinal) and their related ganglia outside the central nervous system (CNS). The latter comprising the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system together form the nervous s...
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Neurocranium

The neurocranium (plural: neurocrania) is the name given to the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. It comprises the skull base and the skull vault. The neurocranium and facial bones (viscerocranium) together form the skull.
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Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...
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Scapular medial rotation

Scapular medial rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces downwards - thus it may also be called downward rotation. It is the opposite of scapular lateral rotation - similarly, this motion requires motion at the sternoclavicular and ...
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Scapular lateral rotation

Scapular lateral rotation describes the rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) such that the glenoid fossa faces upwards - thus it may also be called upward rotation. This motion allows elevation of the humerus as seen in abduction of the arm. It is almost always associated with scapula...
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Scapular retraction

Scapular retraction describes the backward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves towards the midline it can also be referred to as scapular adduction. The opposite motion is scapular protraction. The muscles that act as primary movers are ...
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Scapular protraction

Scapular protraction describes the forward movement of the scapula about the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). As the scapula moves away from the midline it can also be referred to as scapular abduction. This motion usually occurs in conjunction with some scapular lateral rotation. This mov...
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Scapular depression

Scapular depression refers to the caudal motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint). In most instances, depression of the scapula is a passive process (due to gravity) that is facilitated by movement at the acromioclavicular joint. Occasionally some muscular attachments serve as active depres...
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Scapular elevation

Scapular elevation refers to the cranial motion of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint), commonly described as “shrugging the shoulders”. This movement is facilitated by several muscles and it is useful to distinguish these as primary movers and stabilizers. It is important to note that no one mo...
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Pes anserinus (disambiguation)

The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures: pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus pes anserinus (knee) Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
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Antebrachial fascia

The antebrachial fascia or deep fascia of the forearm is a thick connective tissue fascia investing the muscles of the forearm. It also formes the lateral intermuscular septum which divides the forearm muscle into the two following compartments of the forearm together with the radius, ulna and i...
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Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
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Superior medial genicular artery

The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior ...
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Superior lateral genicular artery

The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior and...
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Inferior medial genicular artery

The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal arter...
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Inferior lateral genicular artery

The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: cutaneous perforating branches supply: inferolater...
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Buccolabial muscles

The buccolabial muscles form a subgroup of the facial muscles.  Elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip: levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis (LLSAN) muscle levator labii superioris muscle zygomaticus major muscle zygomaticus minor muscle malaris muscle levator anguli oris...
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Crural fascia

The crural fascia or deep fascia of the lower leg is a thick connective tissue fascia that invests the muscles of the lower leg and divides them into the four compartments of the lower leg 1,2: anterior compartment lateral or peroneal compartment deep posterior compartment superficial poster...
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Levator anguli oris muscle

The levator anguli oris muscle, also known as caninus or triangularis labii superioris muscles, is a buccolabial muscle, a subdivision of the facial muscles. Gross anatomy Summary origin: canine fossa of the maxilla​ insertion: modiolus and merges with depressor anguli oris muscle innervati...
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Tubercle of Assaki

The tubercle of Assaki, also known as the tubercle of Asskay 3, is a small bony protuberance of the central part of the glenoid fossa with accompanying thinning of articular cartilage in this location 1. Pathology It is presumably caused by the constant pressure of the humeral head exerted on ...
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Frontalis muscle

The frontalis muscle (TA: musculus frontalis) is a paired muscle extending from the supraorbital region to the level of the coronal suture. Flat and quadrilateral in shape, it is one of the facial muscles. Along with the occipitalis muscle, it forms the occipitofrontalis muscle due to a common t...
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Anterior tarsal tunnel

The anterior tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal found in the anterior aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Boundaries The anterior tarsal tunnel is beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the foot and bordered by the following structures 1,2: roof: inferior extensor retinaculum media...
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Risorius muscle

The risorius muscle (TA: musculus risorius) is one of the muscles of the mouth, a subset of the facial muscles. It is often absent and has been described as an accessory muscle. Summary origin: fascia overlying the parotid, masseter and/or platysma muscles​ insertion: modiolus at the angle of...
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Glenoid bare spot

Glenoid bare spot, also known as glenoid bare area, is a small central or slightly eccentric area of the inferior glenoid fossa, where the articular cartilage is markedly thinner or completely absent 2. It is considered to be a normal aging-related phenomenon 1. Epidemiology The glenoid bare s...
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Levator labii superioris muscle

The levator labii superioris (LLS) muscle (TA synonym: musculus levator labii superioris) is one of the elevators of the upper lip, a subset of the facial muscles. It is not to be confused with the levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis muscle, which has a very similar name, at least partiall...
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Medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee

The medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee is comprised of three layers 1-3: superficial layer (layer 1) deep crural fascia sartorius muscle intermediate/middle layer (layer 2) superficial medial collateral ligament posterior oblique ligament medial patellofemoral ligament medial ...
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Interossei muscles of the hand

The interosseous (or interossei) muscles of the hand are a group of intrinsic hand muscles that lie near the metacarpals. There are two sets: dorsal interossei muscles (hand) palmar interossei muscles (hand)
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Palmar aponeurosis

The palmar aponeurosis is the thickened strong part of the palmar fascia in the hand which is continuous with the flexor retinaculum and the tendon of palmaris longus tendon. It is superficial to the long flexor tendons and is an inverted triangle in shape, fanning over the palm and thinning med...
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Muscles of the hand

Muscles of the hand can be divided into: extrinsic muscles whose tendons, which attach to structures within the hand, arise from muscle bellies from the forearm or distal humerus intrinsic muscles (mnemonic) whose muscle bellies and tendons are located solely within the hand
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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles, skeletal striated muscles or plainly muscles are an integral part of the locomotor system responsible for movements. The musculoskeletal system of the human body has more than 600 muscles 1 making up around 40% of the body weight. They are very heterogeneous and have different ...
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Additional radial wrist extensor muscles

Additional radial wrist extensors are normal anatomical variants and accessory muscles of the forearm and the wrist.  The following additional wrist extensors have been described 1-6: extensor carpi radialis intermedius extensor carpi radialis accessorius extensor carpi radialis tertius Epid...
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Accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

The accessory flexor carpi ulnaris (AFCU) is a rare accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant that can be found in addition to a normal flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Epidemiology The accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is considered very rare 1,2. Associations...
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Flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus

The flexor carpi radialis brevis (FCRB) vel profundus muscle is an accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus muscle has been found in 2-8% of anatomical dissections 1-3. Summary origin: anterior surf...
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Anterior meniscofemoral ligament (ligament of Humphrey)

The anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) inserts to the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle and runs between the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) to its' distal attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus 1-3.  It is one of two varia...
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Ligament

Ligaments are connective tissue structures that arch over joints connecting one bone to another bone with primary functions as stabilizers of articulations. The scientific study of ligaments is called syndesmology. Histology Ligaments are ultimately formed from numerous ligamental fibrils. The...
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Posterior sacroiliac ligament

The posterior (a.k.a. dorsal) sacroiliac ligament (TA: ligamentum sacroiliacum posterius) is a very strong ligament important in stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Gross anatomy Some texts state that the posterior sacroiliac ligaments have two components; a more superior part, the short posteri...
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Accessory muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand

Accessory muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand are muscular, usually asymptomatic, anatomical variants that might be encountered on imaging studies and confused with pathologic conditions. The following accessory muscles around the forearm, wrist and hand have been described 1-6: ​elbow acc...
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Accessory flexor digitorum superficialis indicis muscle

An accessory flexor digitorum superficialis indicis muscle is an unusual accessory muscle of the hand and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Summary origin: flexor digitorum superficialis tendon near the transverse carpal ligament insertion: metacarpal head of the index finger near the A1...
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Os sustentaculi

The os sustentaculi or os sustentaculum is a rare accessory ossicle of the ankle and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is approximately 0.3-0.4% 1. Associations It has been found in up 24% of talocalcaneal coalitions 2. Gross anatomy The os sustentaculi is ...
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Accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle

The accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle is a rare accessory muscle or tendon of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: extensor hallucis longus tendon or muscle insertion: medial phalanx of the second toe adjacent to the second tendon of the extensor digitorum longus muscl...
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Anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle

The anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: the proximal third of the fibula, peroneus tertius muscle fascia, anterior crural intermuscular septum insertion: lateral calcaneus anterosuperior to the peroneal tubercle ju...
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Extensor hallucis capsularis tendon

The extensor hallucis capsularis tendon, also known as secondary extensor hallucis longus, accessory extensor tendon of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, extensor ossis metatarsi hallucis or extensor ossis primi internodii hallucis is an accessory tendon or muscle of the ankle and an anatomic...
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Tibiocalcaneus internus muscle

The tibiocalcaneus internus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an unknown prevalence. Summary origin: medial crest of the lower third of the tibia insertion: medial surface of the calcaneus approximately 1-2 cm anterior to the Achilles tendon Gross ...
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Peroneocalcaneus internus muscle

The peroneocalcaneus internus muscle, also known as fibulocalcaneus internus muscle of MacAlister, is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an estimated prevalence of about 1%. It is often bilateral if present. Summary origin: the medial surface of the distal lowe...
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Tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber muscle

The tibioastragalus anticus of Gruber (TAAG) muscle or anterior tibiotalus muscle is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: lateral tibial surface and the interosseous membrane of the distal third of the lower leg insertion: anterior superolateral neck...
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Anococcygeal nerve

The anococcygeal nerve is the terminal branch of the coccygeal plexus and is described as supplying the skin of the post anal region. Gross anatomy Origin The anococcygeal nerve originates from the coccygeal plexus 2.  Course The course of the anococcygeal nerve varies according to source i...
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Accessory muscles of the ankle

Accessory muscles of the ankle are muscular anatomical variants that are usually asymptomatic but rarely cause symptoms or might be encountered on imaging studies. The following accessory muscles around the ankle have been described 1-4: posteromedial/flexor compartment accessory flexor digit...
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Coccygeal plexus

The coccygeal plexus is formed by the anterior rami of S4-S5 in combination with the coccygeal nerve and is described as supplying the skin of the post-anal region. Gross anatomy Origin The plexus consists of a minute network of nerve fibers contributed by the anterior rami of S4, S5 and the ...
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Cartilage

Cartilage or cartilaginous tissue is a resilient and type of connective tissue of mesodermal origin that forms an integral part within the musculoskeletal system and as a structural component in other organs.   Cartilage can be generally classified into the following main types: hyaline cartil...
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Synovial folds

Synovial folds or synovial plicae are remnant duplications of synovium formed during embryonic development. They are of particular interest and commonly described in the knee, elbow and hip joint but can be also found in other joints 1-4. Terminology The term ‘plica’ is commonly used if a syn...
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Synovial folds of the hip

Synovial folds or plicae of the hip are vestigial structures within the hip joint and include labral and ligamental plicae as well as the femoral retinacula. Gross anatomy The following synovial folds, plicae or retinacula have been described in the hip joint 1-5: femoral neck plicae or retin...
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Articular cartilage

Articular cartilage refers to the cartilaginous connective tissue covering the bony surfaces of diarthrodial joints. Gross anatomy Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage and is composed of a low density of chondrocytes surrounded by an abundant extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix ...
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Fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris bursa

The fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris bursa is a small bursa separating the medial surface of the anterior arm of the long head biceps femoris tendon from the medially inserting lateral collateral ligament of the knee at the level of the fibular head. Gross anatomy The fibular collate...
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Meniscofibular ligament

The meniscofibular ligament is a capsular ligament that connects the corpus of the lateral meniscus to the fibular head and provides stability to the posterolateral corner of the knee. Gross anatomy The meniscofibular has been shown to be present in up to 100% of cadaver studies 1,2. It consis...
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Meniscocapsular ligament

The meniscocapsular ligament attaches the base of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus to the posterior joint capsule of the knee adjacent to the coronary ligament. Gross anatomy The meniscocapsular ligament is a collagenous structure of the posteromedial corner of the knee and connects t...
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Distal semimembranosus tendon

The distal semimembranosus tendon, distal semimembranosus complex or distal semimembranosus muscle-tendon unit is a major musculotendinous structure of the posteromedial corner of the knee and an important dynamic stabilizer of the knee. Gross anatomy The semimembranosus tendon has a complex a...
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Fabellofibular ligament

The fabellofibular ligament (FFL) or gastrocnemiofibular ligament is a ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee and a static secondary stabilizer with morphological variability. Gross anatomy The fabellofibular ligament takes its course from the fabella and descends verti...
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Common flexor origin of the elbow

The common flexor origin of the elbow refers to a common attachment of the following flexor-pronator muscles at the medial epicondyle of the distal humerus 1-3: pronator teres (PT) flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) The flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and palmaris lo...
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Annular ligament of the elbow

The annular ligament is a part of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex of the elbow joint and a major stabilizer of the proximal radioulnar joint. Gross anatomy The annular ligament is located within the elbow joint and is one of four ligaments forming the lateral collateral ligamentous ...
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Common extensor origin of the elbow

The common extensor origin of the elbow classically refers to the common tendon of the following forearm extensor muscles, which form a common footprint at the lateral epicondyle 1,2: extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) extensor digitorum communis (EDC) extensor digiti minimi (EDM) extenso...
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Radial collateral ligament of the elbow

The radial collateral ligament (RCL), radial collateral ligament proper or lateral collateral ligament of the elbow is a static lateral stabilizer and a part of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex of the elbow. Gross anatomy The radial collateral ligament courses through the intertuberc...
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Paratenon

The paratenon is a membrane-like areolar structure consisting of loose connective tissue found around extraarticular tendons without a synovial sheath including the Achilles tendon, quadriceps tendon or distal biceps tendon. It allows the tendon to move more freely acting as a gliding mechanism ...
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Popliteomeniscal fascicles

The popliteomeniscal fascicles (PMF) are synovial ligamentous structures connecting the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the popliteus tendon thus stabilizing the lateral meniscus. They form the popliteal hiatus and include the following: anteroinferior popliteomeniscal fascicle poste...
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Popliteus tendon

The popliteus tendon is part of the popliteus musculotendinous complex together with the popliteus muscle and the popliteofibular ligament and constitutes a part of the posterolateral corner of the knee. Gross anatomy The popliteus tendon ascends the posterolateral corner of the knee in a supe...
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Distal biceps femoris tendon

The distal biceps femoris tendon is a complex musculotendinous unit that connects the long and short head of the biceps femoris muscle to the fibular head, the superolateral portion of the lateral tibial condyle and the lateral and anterior fascia of the lower leg. Gross anatomy Both heads of ...
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Tendon

Tendons are flexible and inelastic bands of strong fibrous connective tissue that transmit force from muscle to bone and form an integral part of the musculoskeletal system. They can be intraarticular, coated in a tendon sheath or remain extrasynovial, coated by paratenon. Gross anatomy Tendon...
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Lacertus fibrosus

The lacertus fibrosus or distal bicipital aponeurosis is an aponeurotic structure originating and enveloping the distal biceps tendon as well as the proximal flexor muscle group of the forearm. Gross anatomy The lacertus fibrosus has been described as a multilayered structure with a superficia...
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Distal biceps tendon

The distal biceps tendon (DBT) is a strong duplicated extrasynovial tendon that connects the distally variably interlinked long and short head of the biceps brachii muscle to the bicipital tuberosity of the proximal radius. Besides the distal biceps tendon, the biceps muscle is distally attached...
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Retropectoralis minor space

Retropectoralis minor space or subpectoralis minor space is the lateral most space traversed by brachial plexus and adjacent artery and vein as they pass from the axilla to the thorax, and is thus a location of potential compression leading to thoracic outlet syndrome.  It is best seen in the s...
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Honeycomb sterna

Honeycomb sterna are considered as a rare developmental variant of the sternum, resulting from unfused lateral ossification centers of the sternebrae, which gives a honeycomb configuration of the mesosternum. Usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during a routine exam of the chest.
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Synovial folds of the elbow

Synovial folds, synovial plicae or synovial fringes of the elbow are structures found within the elbow joint. Their function remains unknown, however, there are theories that they might have a cushioning or load dispersing effect. Occasionally they can cause symptoms. Gross anatomy Like the sy...
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Posterior proximal tibiofibular ligament

The posterior proximal tibiofibular ligaments form a part of the proximal tibiofibular joint capsule and belong to the supporting structures of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Gross anatomy The posterior proximal tibiofibular ligaments are thinner and less strong than the anterior proximal ti...
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Anterior proximal tibiofibular ligaments

The anterior proximal tibiofibular ligaments belong to the supporting structures of the proximal tibiofibular joint and the tibiofibular joint capsule. Gross anatomy The anterior proximal tibiofibular ligaments usually consist of up to four bundles, one located superiorly and two at a mid-leve...
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Ulnar artery branches (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the ulnar artery is: Anatomical Pictures Can Definitely Deeply Please Mnemonics Anatomical Pictures Can Definitely Deeply Please A: anterior ulnar recurrent P: posterior ulnar recurrent C: common interosseous artery D: dorsal carpal branch D...
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Odontoid process agenesis

Odontoid process agenesis is rare, occuring due to a lack of failure of ossification of the odontoid process. It is seen in patients with spondyloepiphyseal and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia 1,2. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain film, odontoid process agenesis appears small, as...
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Cruciate anastomosis

The cruciate anastomosis 1 forms part of the blood supply of the femoral head along with the trochanteric anastomosis and the ligamentum teres.  The medial circumflex femoral artery and the lateral circumflex femoral artery form a ring around the femoral neck. The transverse branches of these t...
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Tarsal canal

The tarsal canal is a medial stem-like continuation of cone-shaped sinus tarsi, often described together as a funnel-shaped tarsal canal and sinus, which extends posteromedially to the sustenaculum tali and lies between the medial and posterior facets of the subtalar joint 1-4.  Gross anatomy ...
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Epipyramis

Epipyramis also knows as os epitriquetrum is an accessory ossicle of the wrist. It is a small pyramidal shaped ossicle seen in the medial intercarpal space between lunate, triquetral, capitate and hamate bones. It is one of the rare accessory ossicles of the wrist and can be mistaken for a fract...
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Interosseous muscles of the foot

The interosseous muscles of the foot are a group of muscles that lie near the metatarsals. They are considered voluntary muscles and are divided into two sets: dorsal interossei (foot) plantar interossei (foot)
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Supra-acromial bursa

The supra-acromial bursa is one of the five main shoulder bursae. Gross anatomy located subcutaneously superior to the acromion not usually in communication with neighboring bursae or the glenohumeral joint 1,2 Related pathology Cases of supra-acromial bursitis have occasionally been repor...
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Coracoclavicular bursa

The coracoclavicular bursa, also known as the supracoracoid bursa, can be found within the angle separating the trapezoid and conoid segments of the coracoclavicular ligament 1,3. It is surrounded by varying amounts of fibro-fatty tissue. Smaller bursae associated with the coracoid process or ei...
Article

Prepatellar quadriceps continuation

The prepatellar quadriceps continuation is formed by the extension of the rectus femoris tendon connecting the patellar and quadriceps tendons. Gross anatomy The quadriceps tendon is a multilayer structure, where each of the four components of the muscle (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vas...
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Cuneiform bones

There are three cuneiform bones in the tarsus of a normal human foot, they are from medial to lateral: medial cuneiform intermediate cuneiform lateral cuneiform History and etymology Cuneiform means wedge-shaped from the Latin words 'cuneus' meaning wedge and 'form' referring to shape.
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Lesions of the prepatellar quadriceps continuation

Lesions of the prepatellar quadriceps continuation are partial or complete tears of the prepatellar quadriceps continuation, that can occur with or without patellar or quadriceps tendon tears and can cause anterior knee pain.  Pathology Disruption and separation of prepatellar quadriceps conti...

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