Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

165 results found
Article

Basivertebral nerve

The basivertebral nerve supplies the vertebral endplates and can be a target for treating back pain.  Gross anatomy The basivertebral nerve is a paired nerve arising from the sinuvertebral nerve. It ascends from its origin to enter the spinal canal, traversing centrally 1. It courses with the ...
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Supraodontoid space

The supraodontoid space, also known as the supradental space or apical cave, is an extradural space at the anterior craniocervical junction superior to the odontoid process of C2 (dens axis). Gross anatomy Boundaries The space is a cave-shaped region facing posteriorly with the following boun...
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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. The autonomic system provides innervation of the involuntary muscles, i.e. myocardium and smooth muscle, and glands, through which fine control of homeostasis is maintained. The afferent innervation of the aut...
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Posterior sacroiliac ligament

The posterior (a.k.a. dorsal) sacroiliac ligament (TA: ligamentum sacroiliacum posterius) is a very strong ligament important in stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Gross anatomy Some texts state that the posterior sacroiliac ligaments have two components; a more superior part, the short posteri...
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Paraspinal muscles

The paraspinal muscles (PSM) , also known as paravertebral muscles, is a descriptive term given to those muscles that closely surround the spine, primarily the thoracolumbar spine. There has been great research interest in using the cross-sectional area of these muscles as a measure of overall m...
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Odontoid process agenesis

Odontoid process agenesis is rare, occuring due to a lack of failure of ossification of the odontoid process. It is seen in patients with spondyloepiphyseal and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia 1,2. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain film, odontoid process agenesis appears small, as...
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Split atlas

Split or bipartite atlas is the rare congenital anomaly where the atlas is split into two halves by fusion defects in both the anterior and posterior arches. The osseous defects are spanned by fibrous tissue. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on spinal imaging. Patients may h...
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Pars interarticularis

The pars interarticularis or simply pars is the part of a vertebra located between the superior and inferior articular processes. In the axial plane the pars is located at the junction of the pedicle and lamina. In the oblique lumbar radiograph, the neck of the Scottie dog represents the pars. ...
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Sinuvertebral nerve

The sinuvertebral nerve, also known as the recurrent meningeal nerve, or the recurrent nerve of Luschka, is a branch of the primary ventral ramus and grey ramus communicans in the intervertebral foramen. It enters the spinal canal and supplies the posterior portion of the annulus of the interver...
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Cancellous bone

Cancellous, trabecular or spongy bone is one of the two macroscopic forms of bone, the other being cortical bone, and comprises 20% of skeletal mass.  Gross anatomy Cancellous bone is located in the medullary cavity of bone, in particular tubular and short bones, and consists of dense trabecul...
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Functional neuroanatomy

Functional neuroanatomy is the study of the functional connections in the brain and spinal cord, distinct but interconnected with the structural or "more conventional" anatomic descriptions of the central nervous system. It focuses on the relationship between structure and function and hence it ...
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Vertebral body endplate

Vertebral body endplates are anatomically-discrete structures that form the interface between the vertebral bodies and the adjacent intervertebral discs. They are constituted peripherally by an epiphyseal bone ring and centrally by a cartilaginous layer. The cartilaginous layer is related to the...
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Lordosis

Lordosis (plural: lordoses) is the term used to refer to the normal anterior curvature of the cervical and lumbar spines when viewed from the side (concavity at the posterior aspect of the spine (cf kyphosis). Lordosis cervicis and lordosis lumbalis are the respective Terminologia Anatomica term...
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Arterial vasocorona

The arterial vasocorona is part of the spinal cord blood supply and is formed by pial anastomoses between the anterior and posterior spinal arteries on the surface of the spinal cord. It encircles the cord and supplies the peripheral lateral aspect of the spinal cord.  Engorgement of arterial v...
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Suboccipital triangle

The suboccipital triangles are a paired triangular-shaped space formed by the configuration of three paired muscles in the posterior neck between the occipital bone, C1 and C2. Gross Anatomy The suboccipital triangle has an inferomedial pointing apex (pointing towards the nuchal ligament) form...
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White matter

The white matter is the substance of the brain and spinal cord that contains the fiber tracts of neuronal axons in the central nervous system. The term is due to the paler color of the lipid-rich myelin that encases the axons in the tracts compared to the grey matter, which contains predominantl...
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Grey matter

The grey matter is the substance of the brain and spinal cord that contains the neuronal cell bodies of the central nervous system. Within the cerebrum the two main locations of grey matter are on the surface of the gyri (the cortical grey matter) and the nuclei of the basal ganglia. The brains...
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Pseudosinus tract

A pseudosinus tract is a normal fibrous cord extending from the coccyx to an overlying sacral dimple. These have no associated mass and contain no fluid (if CSF drainage is occurring via the sacral dimple, then a true dorsal dermal sinus should be considered). Diagnosis Ultrasound Hypoechoic ...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial...
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Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies

Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies are relatively common and should not be mistaken for fractures. They are thought to be both developmental and pathological (e.g. spondylolysis) but are typically asymptomatic and incidental, and considered as anatomical variants. There are six types of poster...
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Uncinate process of the cervical spine

The uncinate process of the cervical spine is a hook-shaped process found bilaterally on the superolateral margin of the cervical vertebral bodies of C3-C7. The uncinate processes are more anteriorly positioned in the upper cervical spine and more posteriorly located in the lower cervical spine...
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Spinal canal

The spinal canal, also known as the vertebral canal, is the cavity within the vertebral column that contains the thecal sac and spinal cord. The canal consists of a series of vertebral foramina (the holes at the center of the vertebra) linked with discoligamentous structures. Gross anatomy The...
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Spinal pia mater

The spinal pia mater (or pia mater spinalis) is the innermost layer of the spinal meninges. In congruence to the cranial pia being closely related to the surface of the brain, the spinal pia is closely related to the surface of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy The spinal pia mater is continuou...
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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid that surrounds and bathes the brain and spinal cord. Physiology Production Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the epithelium of the choroid plexus within the ventricular system and flows in the direction from the lateral ventricles to the third ve...
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Bladder neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy of the bladder is complex, described here is a summary of the co-ordination of micturition. The bladder acts as a reservoir normally storing 400-500 mL of urine under low pressure (<15 cmH2O) before voluntary voiding can occur at a socially-convenient time. Bladder filling and empt...
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Vertebral levels (anatomical landmarks)

Many vertebral levels are associated with key anatomical landmarks. Below is a summary of vertebral levels and associated internal or surface anatomy. Please note that some texts differ slightly on certain levels and levels may be altered by patient positioning (supine versus erect) and patient ...
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Cervical spine alignment

When assessing cervical spine alignment, look for four parallel lines connecting structures in the cervical spine: anterior vertebral line: anterior margin of the vertebral bodies posterior vertebral line: posterior margin of the vertebral bodies (also known as George's line) spinolaminar lin...
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Spinal subdural space

The spinal subdural space is a potential area between the spinal arachnoid mater and the spinal dura mater. Unlike the cranial subdural space, the spinal subdural space does not contain any bridging veins, and thus hemorrhage into this area only occurs in very rare cases 1.  It only contains a ...
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Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
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Movements of the spine

Movements of the spine are possible due to intervertebral discs, and with the fulcrum of movement occurring primarily around the nucleus pulposus. Specialized motion occurs at the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints, which do not contain a disc. The spine (vertebral column) forms the cent...
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Ventral horn

The ventral horn of the spinal cord is one of the grey longitudinal columns found within the spinal cord. It contains the cell bodies of the lower motor neurons which have axons leaving via the ventral spinal roots on their way to innervate muscle fibers. Gross anatomy On transverse section of...
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Lateral horn

The lateral horn of the spinal cord is the small lateral projection of grey matter located between the dorsal horn and ventral horn and contain the neuronal cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system. Gross anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord, the spinal grey matter is describe...
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Central canal

The central canal is the longitudinal CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. It is lined by ependyma. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fou...
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Lumbar cistern

The lumbar cistern refers to the subarachnoid space in the lower lumbar spinal canal. The cistern is an enlargement of the subarachnoid space in the dural sac, distal to the conus medullaris. It contains cerebrospinal fluid and the nerve roots of the cauda equina. As the conus (usually) termina...
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Spinal subarachnoid space

The spinal subarachnoid space is the space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater in the spine and is continuous with the intracranial subarachnoid space.  It communicates with the intracranial subarachnoid space via the foramen magnum and ends at the level of the S2 vertebra.  It is a relat...
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Spinal dura mater

The spinal dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges that surround the spinal cord. Gross Anatomy The spinal dura mater is a fibrous, non-adherent, tough layer surrounding the spinal cord.  It is separated from the wall of the vertebral canal by the epidural space. This space contains ...
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Third condyle

The third condyle, also known as condylus tertius or median occipital condyle, is a rare anatomic variant of the occipital condyles. It is a small separate ossicle at the anteromedial margin of the occipital condyle formed by the failure of the embryonic proatlas (4th occipital sclerotome) to un...
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White matter tracts of the spinal cord

The spinal cord has numerous tracts of white matter that ascend and descend in the peripheral substance of the cord. They can be divided by their location and function: anterolateral columns anterior corticospinal tract medial longitudinal fasiculus spinothalamic tracts lateral spinothalami...
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Gracile fasciculus

The gracile fasciculus, also known as the fasciculus gracilis (plural: fasciculi graciles) or column of Goll, represents the medial portion of the dorsal columns and carries input from below and including T7 1. Function The gracile fasciculus is responsible for transmitting vibration, consciou...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediated by the sympathetic chain (trunk) and ganglia, is a major division of the autonomic nervous system. It is composed of general visceral afferent and efferent axons that allow for involuntary control of bodily functions via the hypothalamus.  The over...
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Intervertebral foramen

The intervertebral foramina, commonly also called the neural foramina, allow passage of structures out of and into the vertebral canal. Gross anatomy Boundaries anterior: lower posterolateral aspect of a vertebral body and the intervertebral disc below, in the thoracic and lumbar regions. in...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular lateral extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal ...
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Vertebra

The vertebra (plural: vertebrae) is the fundamental segmental unit of the vertebral column (also known as the spine). Gross anatomy Vertebrae, apart from those that are atypical, have a similar basic structure which can be described as an anterior vertebral body and a posterior neural (or vert...
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Paracondylar process

Paracondylar process is a rare anatomical variant of the occipital bone, where a bony exostosis extends caudally from the paracondylar region (lateral to the native occipital condyles), typically articulating with the superior surface of a transverse process of the atlas. This may be unilateral ...
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Epitransverse process of the atlas

Epitransverse process is a rare anatomical variant of the atlas, consisting of a bony exostosis which extends cephalad from the transverse process of the atlas to articulate with the occipital bone. This process sometimes meets with a paracondylar process from the occipital bone, forming a pseud...
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Neurenteric canal of Kovalevsky

The neurenteric canal or canal of Kovalevsky is the transient communication of the amnion through notochordal canal to the yolk sac during notochordal formation at day 16-17. Abnormalities during this stage produce the neurenteric cyst spectrum.
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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs. Gross anatomy It is one of two symmetrical enlargements which occupy the segments of the limb plexuses, the other being the lumbosacral enlargement ...
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Transpyloric plane

The transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's plane, is an imaginary axial plane located midway between the jugular notch and superior border of pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of L1 vertebral body. It an important landmark as many key structures are visualized at this level, altho...
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Cortical bone

The outer shell of compact bone is called cortical bone or cortex. It is formed by compact bone which is one of the two macroscopic forms of bone, the other being cancellous bone.  Gross anatomy Cortical bone contains Haversian systems (osteons) which contain a central Haversian canal surround...
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Ascending lumbar vein

The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure which forms a part of the venous drainage of the lumbar vertebral column. Summary location: near midline on the side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region origin and termination: continuation of the lateral sacral veins; joins the ipsilat...
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Spinothalamic tracts

The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. Unlike other tracts main spinal tracts, the spinothalamic tracts de...
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Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Lateral spinothalamic tract

The lateral spinothalamic tract, also known as the lateral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anterolaterally within the peripheral white matter of the spinal cord. It is primarily responsible for transmitting pain and temperature as well as coarse touch.  The anterior sp...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Rubrospinal tract

The rubrospinal tract contains neurons that carry signals from the corticorubral tract. The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The magnocellular portion of the red nucleus gives rise to the rubrospinal tract. It decussates...
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Spinal arachnoid mater

The spinal arachnoid mater is a thin, delicate and avascular connective tissue membrane which forms the middle layer of the meninges and covers the spinal cord1. Gross Anatomy The spinal arachnoid mater becomes continuous with the cerebral arachnoid mater as it traverses the foramen magnum and...
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Corticorubral tract

The corticorubral tract contains neurons that connect the primary motor and sensory areas to the red nucleus. The rubrospinal tract then descends through the spinal cord.  The tract is thought to excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles. Gross anatomy Central connections The corti...
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Difference in vertical mid-vertical angle (lumbar spine)

The difference in vertical mid-vertical angle is the difference in the vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) between the caudal segment angle and the adjacent cephalad segment angle of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine as measured on a mid-sagittal MRI or a lateral radiograph. Ra...
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Spinocerebellar tract

The spinocerebellar tracts are afferent neurons that convey proprioceptive data from the spinal cord to the cerebellum. There are anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts, also eponymously named the Gowers tract and Flechsig tract respectively. Both the anterior and posterior spinocerebella...
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Lateral corticospinal tract

The lateral corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids when the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibers decussate. The remaining 10% do not decussate and form the much smaller anterior corticospinal tract. A few non-decussated fibers may enter the...
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Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibers decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibers form the much smaller anterio...
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Spinal meninges

The spinal meninges (singular: meninx) are contained within the spinal canal and encase the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and the cauda equina. Gross anatomy They are composed of three layers (outer to inner) dura mater (also known as theca or pachymeninx) arachnoid mater pia mater Colle...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Lumbar enlargement

The lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord corresponds to the mild increase in cross sectional area of the cord from the T11 level to the conus medullaris. It is enlarged due to the presence of the spinal nerve anterior rami which contribute to the lumbar and sacral plexuses.
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Focal fatty deposits in bone marrow

Focal fatty deposits, marrow islands, and replacements in the bone marrow are well-defined focal fat islands within the bone marrow of the spine or other parts of the axial skeleton 1,2. Epidemiology Common in older individuals, related to age but not to sex. Associations Focal fatty deposit...
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Transversospinalis muscle group

The transversospinalis muscle group is the deep layer of the intrinsic back muscles. These muscles lie between the transverse and spinous processes and are grouped by length of the fascicles, as well as region covered. The groups are rotatores, multifidus, and semispinalis. Gross anatomy Rotat...
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Erector spinae group

The erector spinae group is the intermediate layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. This group is made of three subgroups, with the group divisions occurring by location. spinalis subgroup is the most medial longissimus subgroup is between spinalis and iliocostalis iliocostalis subgroup ...
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Splenius cervicis muscle

The splenius cervicis is part of the superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles. It is one of the two muscles in this group, the other being the splenius capitis. Summary origin: spinous processes of T3-T6 insertion: transverse processes of C1-C3 innervation: dorsal rami of the lower ce...
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Splenius capitis muscle

The splenius capitis is a strap-like muscles that, along with the splenius cervicis, comprise the superficial layer of intrinsic back muscles. Gross anatomy Attachments origin: ligamentum nuchae, and the tips of the spinous processes and associated supraspinous ligaments of C7 and the upper t...
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Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
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Facet joint capsule

Facet joint capsules are the fibrous capsule that surround the vertebral facet or zygapophyseal joints. They are particularly thin and loose, attached to the margins of articular facets on adjoining articular processes. The capsules merge medially with the ligamentum flavum.  In the cervical re...
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Intervertebral joint

There are three intervertebral joints between each adjacent vertebra from the axis to the sacrum – one between the vertebral bodies and a pair between the facets of adjoining vertebral arches (zygapophysial joints, also called facet joints). Gross anatomy Movement flexion: the anterior interv...
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Uncovertebral joint

Uncovertebral joints, also called Luschka’s joints, are seen bilaterally between adjacent cervical vertebrae, identified by the cat ear shaped uncinate processes of the C3-7 vertebrae (C1 and C2 have no uncinate processes). Gross anatomy Articulations The articulation forms between the uncina...
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Ligamentum nuchae

The ligamentum nuchae is a large median ligament composed of tendons and fascia located between the posterior muscles of the neck. It covers the spines of C1 to C6 vertebrae. It is a superior and posterior extension of the supraspinous ligament. It rises from the spinous process of C7 to the ini...
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Intertransverse ligaments

The intertransverse ligaments consist of fibrous tissue joining transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae. In the cervical region, intertransverse ligaments are scattered fibers that are largely replaced by intertransverse muscles. In the thoracic region, these are fibrous cords blending with t...
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Coccyx

The coccyx (plural: coccyges) is the series of rudimentary vertebrae forming the caudal termination of the vertebral column and is positioned inferior to the apex of the sacrum. The coccyx is one leg of the tripod formed in conjunction with the ischial tuberosities for support in a seated positi...
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Atypical cervical vertebrae

Of the cervical vertebrae, the atlas (C1), axis (C2) and vertebra prominens (C7) are considered atypical cervical vertebrae. The atlas (C1) lacks a body or spinous process. It has anterior and posterior arches with lateral masses. Its superior articular surfaces articulate with the occiput at t...
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Atypical lumbar vertebrae

Of the five lumbar vertebrae, L5 is considered atypical due to its shape. The remaining lumbar vertebrae are largely typical. For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
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Batson venous plexus

Batson venous plexus, also known as Batson veins, are a network of paravertebral veins with no valves that connect thoracic vessels and deep pelvic veins draining the bladder, prostate, and rectum to the internal vertebral venous plexus 1. These veins are important because they are believed to p...
Article

Thoracic spine

The thoracic spine (often shortened to T-spine) forms the middle part of the vertebral column. It extends from below C7 of the cervical spine to above L1 of the lumbar spine. There are 12 thoracic vertebra, termed T1-T12. The thoracic spine is unique due to its articulation with ribs via costal...
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Atypical thoracic vertebrae

T1 and T9 - T12 are considered atypical thoracic vertebrae. T1 bears some resemblance to low cervical vertebrae T9 has no inferior demifacet T10 often, but not always, shares features with T11 and T12.  For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae.
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T12 vertebra

T12 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a single costal facet with no facets on transverse processes.
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T11 vertebra

T11 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a single costal facet that articulates with the atypical eleventh rib. There are no facets on the transverse processes.
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T1 vertebra

T1 is an atypical thoracic vertebra. In contrast to typical thoracic vertebrae, it contains a complete facet for the 1st rib and a demifacet for the 2nd rib. It contains lips on the upper surface of the body. T1 also has a spinous process more horizontal than other thoracic vertebrae.
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Typical thoracic vertebrae

Given the twelve thoracic vertebrae are largely similar, most are considered typical thoracic vertebrae with the exceptions T1 and T9 to T12. For a basic anatomic description of the structure of typical vertebrae, see vertebrae. Terminology In medical English, some doctors and texts refer to t...
Article

Sacral hiatus

The sacral hiatus corresponds to the posterior caudal opening at the end of the sacral canal, which usually occurs at the fifth sacral vertebra (S5), at the posterior surface of the sacrum. Gross anatomy Location Commonly, the sacral hiatus corresponds to the non-formation of S5 spinous proce...
Article

Lumbar plexus

The lumbar plexus is a complex neural network formed by the lower thoracic and lumbar ventral nerve roots (T12 to L5) which supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower limb and pelvic girdle. Summary origin: ventral rami of T12 to L5 course: formed within the substance of the psoas ma...
Article

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle

Congenital absence of a spine pedicle is a rare congenital condition, but awareness of its characteristic imaging appearance is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Failure to recognize this entity can lead to misdiagnosis of unilateral facet subluxation/dislocation, leading to unnecessary treatmen...
Article

Vertebral venous plexus

The vertebral venous plexus is a highly anastomotic network of valveless veins running along the entire length of the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to the sacral hiatus. Gross anatomy The vertebral venous plexus is comprised of three interconnected divisions: internal vertebral ven...
Article

Supraspinous ligament

The supraspinous ligament runs along the tips of adjacent spinous processes and is particularly thick in the cervicothoracic region. Above the level C7 spinous process the ligament no longer directly attaches to the spinous process but rather continues as the nuchal ligament up to its attachment...
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Interspinous ligament

The interspinous ligaments join the spinous processes along their adjacent borders. They are composed of relatively weak fibrous tissue that fuses with the stronger, supraspinous ligaments.
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Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane attaches the anterosuperior border of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum. It lies immediately posterior to the spinal theca and is continuous inferiorly with the ligamentum flavum (sometimes referred to at C...

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