Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

530 results found
Article

Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.  Clinical presentation painful urination strangury bloody, dark, cloudy urine urinary frequen...
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Atlantodental interval

The atlantodental interval is used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries and injuries of the atlas and axis. Measurement The anterior atlantodental interval is the horizontal distance between the posterior cortex of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) and the anterior cor...
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Extradural hematoma vs subdural hematoma

Differentiating extradural (EDH) from subdural (SDH) hemorrhage in the head is usually straightforward, but occasionally it can be challenging. SDHs are more common and there are a few distinguishing features which are usually reliable. Pathology History and mechanism of injury Extradural hem...
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Gissane angle

Gissane angle, also known as the "critical angle of Gissane", is a measurement on lateral foot radiographs used to evaluate the severity of calcaneal fractures. Measurement The Gissane angle is measured by drawing lines along the superior surfaces of the anterior process and the posterior face...
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Prosthetic cardiac valves on chest x-ray (an approach)

Prosthetic cardiac valves are a routine finding on chest X-ray. The frequency and degree of exposure is greatest in larger hospitals with cardiothoracic centers; however, prosthetic valves are commonplace universally. Recognition of which valve has been replaced, any other related cardiothoraci...
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Malignant ovarian lesions (sonographic features)

Malignant ovarian lesions can have typical sonographic features, and thus ultrasound is the imaging of choice for initial evaluation of suspected ovarian neoplasm. Radiographic features The features of malignant ovarian neoplasm on ultrasonography include: solid tumor mass >10 cm with locula...
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Hematuria (pediatric)

Hematuria in a child is evaluated differently than in an adult in two main respects: there is a lower likelihood of a malignancy (renal or bladder) causing the hematuria preference is given to nonionizing radiation Pathology Hematuria can be considered in three main forms: "gross" hematuria...
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Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
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Coxa magna

Coxa magna is the asymmetrical, circumferential enlargement and deformation of the femoral head and neck. Definitions in the literature vary but enlargement with asymmetry >10% in size is a reasonable cut-off for diagnosis 1.  Pathology Etiology Legg-Calve-Perthes disease transient synovitis...
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Coracoclavicular distance

The coracoclavicular (CC) distance is an indicator of the integrity of the coracoclavicular ligament. Measurement The coracoclavicular distance is assessed on frontal radiography of the shoulder or clavicle or the coronal projection of a CT or MRI as the distance between the superior cortex of...
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M-line of Cremin

M-line of Cremin is an imaginary line that can be used to determine the level at which the blind pouch ends in anal atresia, determining whether the anal atresia is a high or a low type. The line is drawn perpendicular to the long axis of the ischium on the lateral view and passes through the j...
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Sagittal midline of the brain (an approach)

The sagittal midline of the brain is one of the most important sectional planes in neuroimaging. A good working knowledge of the normal neuroanatomy of the sagittal midline is essential so that the subtle abnormalities that may manifest here can be recognized. The neuroembryological development...
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Global cortical atrophy scale

The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale, also known as the Pasquier scale, is a qualitative rating system developed to assess cerebral atrophy, especially in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. It evaluates atrophy in 13 brain regions assessed separately in each hemisphere and resulting i...
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Ultrasound-guided FNA of the thyroid

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid refers to a minimally invasive procedure where in which tissue samples are collected from a thyroid nodule or other suspicious thyroid lesion. It is usually done on an outpatient basis and generally complications are very minimal. Pr...
Article

Enteroclysis

Enteroclysis is a gastrointestinal technique designed to provide improved evaluation of the small bowel. The conventional fluoroscopic technique is not widely used since it is somewhat invasive, time and labor intensive, and not particularly pleasant for the patient. The exam also requires a deg...
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Small bowel follow through

Small bowel follow through (SBFT) is a fluoroscopic technique designed to obtain high-resolution images of the small bowel. The motility of the small bowel can also be grossly evaluated. Indications The small bowel follow through can be useful for evaluation of: strictures obstruction ...
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Anatomical position

The anatomical position, also known as standard anatomical position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined as if t...
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Describing a fracture (an approach)

Describing a fracture is a basic requirement when making an assessment of a plain radiograph. There are many ways to approach the assessment of the radiograph; this is just one approach. I: Describe the radiograph What radiograph (or radiographs) are you looking at? Check the who, what, why, w...
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Tumors that metastasize to bone (mnemonic)

Tumors that metastasize to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "PBKTL", rendered as "lead kettle", as "Pb" is the standard abbreviation for the chemical element, lead. PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most commo...
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Intermetatarsal angle

The intermetatarsal angle is a measurement used to assess hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus deformities. Terminology The term intermetatarsal angle alone typically refers to assessment of the first and second metatarsals. Occasionally the term first intermetatarsal angle is used to spe...
Article

Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test, also known as diaphragm fluoroscopy, is a quick and easy real time fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragmatic motor function (excursion). It is used most often to confirm absence of muscular contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration in patients with phrenic nerve...
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The four "Ds" of radiology reporting

The four "Ds" of radiology reporting are the basic sequential tasks that a radiologist performs when reporting/reading a case, whether it be in training, the exam environment or in day-to-day clinical practice.  The 4 "Ds" Detect Describe Diagnosis or differential diagnoses Decision By sti...
Article

Triple screening

Triple screening refers to a screening blood test that is used to screen pregnant women for possible neural tube defects, Down syndrome and trisomy 18 in the developing fetus. It measures: alpha-fetoprotein beta hCG unconjugated estriol Interpretation An abnormal test result doesn't indica...
Article

Fundoplication

Fundoplications are forms of antireflux surgery used as a second line of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease after failure of medical treatment and the first line of treatment of paraesophageal hernia. Technique A gastric fold is wrapped around the distal esophagus which enforces the ...
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Radiology training in the Republic of Ireland

Radiology training in the Republic of Ireland is organized under the auspices of the Faculty of Radiologists at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. The duration of training is 5 years leading to a Certificate of Completion of Specialist Training which is a requirement for entry to the Spec...
Article

Epistaxis

Epistaxis (plural: epistaxes) is the medical term for a nosebleed, and is very common in clinical practice with a broad differential diagnosis. Anterior epistaxes mainly bleed from Kiesselbach's plexus and posterior epistaxes (5% of all epistaxis) from Woodruff's plexus. Epidemiology Epistaxis...
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MRI of the brachial plexus

MRI of the brachial plexus is used to provide a causal diagnosis for brachial plexopathies. It provides clear structural analysis of the brachial plexus, its intraneural integrity, as well as surrounding structures 1,3. Related pathology brachial plexus injuries grading of brachial ple...
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Assessment of thyroid lesions (ultrasound)

Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for assessment of thyroid nodules found on clinical examination or incidentally on another imaging modality. This article is an overview of ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules, which are used to determine the need for biopsy with fine needle...
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Tumor pseudoresponse

Tumor pseudoresponse, also known just as pseudoresponse, refers to the phenomenon of tumors appearing to respond to a specific treatment on imaging criteria when the lesion actually remains stable or has even progressed. Terminology The term is largely used for brain tumors during imaging foll...
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Capitolunate angle

The capitolunate angle is the angle between the long axis of the capitate and the mid axis of the lunate on the sagittal imaging of the wrist. In a normal situation it should be less than 30° in the resting (neutral) position. The angle is increased in carpal instability such as with a dorsal i...
Article

Subpleural reticulation

Subpleural reticulation is a type of reticular interstitial pattern where the changes are typically in a peripheral subpleural distribution (i.e. adjacent to costal pleural surfaces, located ≤1 cm from the pleura according to some publications 4). Pathology It can arise in a number of patholog...
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Adrenal washout

Adrenal washout can be calculated using the density value of an adrenal mass on non-enhanced, portal venous phase and 15-minute delayed CT scans (density measured in Hounsfield units (HU)). It is primarily used to diagnose adrenal adenoma. absolute washout [(HUportal venous phase) - (HUdelayed...
Article

Ottawa knee rules

The Ottawa knee rules are a clinical decision-making strategy for determining which patients require radiographic imaging for knee pain following trauma. A patient with knee pain qualifies for knee radiographs if any of the following apply: 55 years or older point tenderness at the fibular he...
Article

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

A reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) or replacement (RTSR) is a variant on the standard total shoulder replacement (TSR). It is often the preferred method when there has been advanced damage to the rotator cuff as seen in rotator cuff arthropathy. Procedure The reverse total shoulder a...
Article

Evacuation proctography

Evacuation proctography (defecography) is a fluoroscopic technique to evaluate pelvic floor prolapse. The technique traditionally involves fluoroscopy and barium, but an analogous MRI technique has also been developed (see: MR defecating proctography). Indications incomplete or obstructed d...
Article

Cardiac silhouette

Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease. Radiographic features From the frontal projection, t...
Article

Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
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Pelvic ultrasound

Pelvic ultrasound is usually the initial modality for imaging gynecologic pathology, including acute pelvic pain and chronic pelvic pain. The exam normally involves two components: a transabdominal (TA) evaluation and a transvaginal (TV) / endovaginal (EV) evaluation. Normal ultrasound anatomy ...
Article

Fetal middle cerebral artery pulsatility index

The fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) is a key parameter used in fetal middle cerebral arterial Doppler assessment. It is calculated by subtracting the end-diastolic velocity (EDV) from the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and then dividing by the time-averaged (mean) velocit...
Article

Acute pelvic pain

Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department and radiologist. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches is usually the first line imaging modality. Clinical presentation non-cyclical pain usually of more acute onset pain of <3 months dura...
Article

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound is the primary modality for imaging most of the male reproductive system. It is relatively quick, relatively inexpensive, can be correlated quickly with the patient's signs and symptoms, and, most importantly, does not employ ionizing radiation. MRI is occasion...
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3D ultrasound

Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound is a technique that converts standard 2D grayscale ultrasound images into a volumetric dataset. The 3D image can then be reviewed retrospectively. The technique was developed for problem-solving (particularly in obstetric/gynecologic exams) and to potentially re...
Article

Ultrasound of the knee

Ultrasound of the knee allows high-resolution imaging of superficial knee anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of some of the tendons and ligaments. Knee ultrasound is somewhat limited compared with ultrasound examinations of other joints because the cruciate ligaments and th...
Article

CT peritoneography

CT peritoneography is an examination used to assess difficulties with peritoneal dialysis.  Indications Recurrent peritonitis with difficulty with fluid exchange, abdominal wall or genital soft tissue edema, localized bulging of the abdomen, and poor ultrafiltration. Technique Before perform...
Article

Chest x-ray review: everything else

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where E refers to "everything else". Summary introduction look at things that do not fit into the A-...
Article

Chest x-ray review: disability

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability and specifically fractures and dislocations. Summary introduction there...
Article

Chest x-ray review: circulation

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation and assessment of the heart and cardiomediastinal contour. Summary intr...
Article

Ultrasound of the wrist

Ultrasound is a useful imaging modality for evaluation of the wrist, allowing high-resolution imaging of anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joints, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the wrist with ultrasound. The exa...
Article

Chest x-ray review: breathing

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where B refers to breathing and the assessment of the lungs and pleural spaces. Summary introduction ...
Article

Ultrasound of the elbow

Ultrasound of the elbow allows high-resolution imaging of elbow anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joint, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the elbow with ultrasound. A typical protocol is as follows 1: Anterior elb...
Article

Chest x-ray review: airway

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessment of the airways. Summary introduction airway assessment often overlo...
Article

Cardiac segmentation model

The American Heart Association (AHA) has published the nomenclature and segmentation of the left ventricular myocardium (the cardiac segmentation model), now widely used for the description of disease-affected myocardial territories and wall function. There are 17 segments that have a reasonabl...
Article

Solitary pulmonary nodule (an approach)

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, is defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly-defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several r...
Article

Scapholunate interval

The scapholunate interval or gap is the radiographic measurement of the scapholunate joint and widening is indicative of a scapholunate ligament injury. Measurement The scapholunate interval should be measured between the midportion of the scaphoid and lunate on neutral PA, Moneim, PA ulnar de...
Article

Determination of atrial situs

Atrial situs refers to the relative position of the cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline. Pathology Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies. Radiographic features ...
Article

Nasogastric tube position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists   Nasogastric (NG) tube position on chest x-ray should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article NGT. S...
Article

Chest x-ray: ET tube position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray ET (endotracheal) tube position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article, see ETT. S...
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Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (e.g. neoplastic compression or degenerative stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all etiologies. Injuries to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and are graded on the ASIA impairment s...
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Errors in diagnostic radiology

Errors in diagnostic radiology occur for a variety of reasons related to human error, technical factors and system faults. It is important to recognize that various cognitive biases contribute to these errors. Classification Renfrew classification This classification was proposed by Renfrew e...
Article

Satisfaction of search error

Satisfaction of search (SOS) error is a common error in diagnostic radiology. It occurs when the reporting radiologist fails to continue to search for subsequent abnormalities after identifying an initial one. This initial detection of an abnormality satisfies the "search for meaning" and the re...
Article

Focal areas of signal intensity (brain)

Focal areas of signal intensity (FASI), also known as focal abnormal signal intensity or unidentified bright objects (UBO), are bright areas on T2-weighted images commonly identified in the basal ganglia (often the globus pallidus), thalamus, brainstem (pons), cerebellum, and subcortical white m...
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When to use italics

Making a decision about when to use italics in Radiopaedia.org articles and cases is important because the addition of bold and italic words in prose actually reduces readability. In general, if there is any doubt, it is best to not use italics. In literature, italics can be used for a number o...
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Nasogastric tube positioning

Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph A correctly placed nasogastric tube should 10: descend in the midline, following the path of ...
Article

Imaging in liver transplantation

Imaging in liver transplantation is aimed to evaluate donor and recipient for successful transplantation and its outcome. Pre-transplant evaluation Donor volume of liver parenchymal disease (diffuse or focal) vascular anatomy arterial variations venous variations biliary anatomy Recipie...
Article

MR enterography

MR enterography (MRE) is a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's and referrer's preference, institutio...
Article

Acromiohumeral interval

Acromiohumeral interval is a useful and reliable measurement on AP shoulder radiographs and when narrowed is indicative of subacromial impingement, rotator cuff tear and/or tendinopathy. In patients with rotator cuff repair, a narrow acromiohumeral interval is a risk factor for re-tear 7. Meas...
Article

Lobar collapse (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Lobar collapse is relatively common and occurs following obstruction of a bronchus. Gas is resorbed from the lung parenchyma distal to the obstruction resulting in the collapse of the lung, with volume reduction and negativ...
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CT enterography (protocol)

CT enterography (CTE) is a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Indications Indications for CT enterography include 4,8: Crohn disease ​diagnosis and complications (primarily) most common indication suspected small bowel bleeding, usually pe...
Article

Glioma treatment response assessment in clinical trials

Glioma treatment response assessment in clinical trials has undergone numerous revisions with a number of criteria having been developed over the years. This has been necessary as a result of a number of factors: improved understanding of tumor biology (e.g. appreciating the importance of non-e...
Article

Trabecular pattern of proximal femur

Trabecular pattern of proximal femur refers to the five groups of trabeculae that are demonstrable within the femoral head and neck. Basic concept Trabecula is a supportive and connective tissue element which form in cancellous bone. Trabeculae develop in a normal bone and also in a healing bo...
Article

CT gastrography (protocol)

Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography, also called virtual gastroscopy (VG), is a noninvasive procedure for the detection of gastric abnormalities. Advantages rapid and noninvasive exam offers information about local tumor invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis in cases of gastric ...
Article

Lower zone

The lower zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones and is sometimes used synonymously with lung bases. Radiographic features Plain radiograph on frontal chest radiographs, extends inferiorly from the inferior aspect of the hilum to the hemidiaphragm CT using the zonal terminology for ...
Article

Mid zone

The mid (or middle) zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones.  Radiographic appearance Plain radiograph on frontal chest radiographs, extends between the superior and inferior aspects of the lung hilum CT using the zonal terminology for the location of findings on chest CT is generall...
Article

CT colonography (protocol)

Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called CTC, virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CT pneumocolon, is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening.  Indications screening test for colorectal carcinoma colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful optica...
Article

Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms of relations anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before...
Article

Lines and tubes (radiograph)

Lines and tubes are important components in chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric tube (NGT) See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-esophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bron...
Article

RANO criteria for glioma

Response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria (RANO), published in 2010 1, are used to assess response to first-line treatment of glioblastoma (as well as lower grade astrocytoma 3) and have largely superseded the older Macdonald criteria (which only dealt with glioblastoma multiforme) 2. For ...
Article

Chest x-ray - an approach (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Chest radiographs are frequently performed and a fantastic tool for making diagnoses of acute and chronic co...
Article

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntington disease but is in no way specific for the diagnosis, also seen in other less...
Article

Frontal horn width to intercaudate distance ratio

Frontal horn width to intercaudate distance ratio (FH/CC) is used in assessing patients with suspected Huntington disease. An alternative measurement is intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT). Measurement On the same axial plane obtained on the ACPC (anterior commissure and p...
Article

Knee radiograph (an approach)

Knee radiographs are common and often a quick and easy diagnostic exam in the emergency setting. An efficient approach to them requires a good understanding of anatomy with review strategies to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Systematic review Choosing a search strategy and utilizing it consiste...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image' and refers to finding normally-asymmetric bilateral structures to be similar. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side o...
Article

Foot radiograph (an approach)

Foot radiographs are commonly performed in Emergency departments, usually after sport-related trauma and often with a clinical request that states lateral border pain. Remember to check the whole film, though. Often, a foot x-ray is also requested for the investigation of osteomyelitis, arthriti...
Article

Pelvic radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Three rings trace the main pelvic ring and two obturator foramina if a ring is disrupted, think fracture... then look for a second one Joint spaces the sacroiliac joints should be symmetrical, joint space range 2-4 mm the symphysis pubis joint space should be ≤5 mm if ei...
Article

HRCT chest - expiration (protocol)

Expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging corresponds to an additional CT acquisition performed as part of the HRCT chest protocol. It represents a scan performed with the patient on supine and images obtained at the end-expiration.  It is a useful method for detecting small airways obstruct...
Article

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study. The biopsy is gene...
Article

Adult elbow radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Whenever you look at an adult elbow x-ray, review: alignment fat pads for effusion bony cortex Alignment Check the anterior humeral line: drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle 1/3 of the capitellum if it does not, think: distal hume...
Article

Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also known as lex parsimoniae), an often cited principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving. It has also been expressed as the KISS principle or "Keep it simple stupid!". It states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions sh...
Article

Air space nodule

An air space nodule is a small (few millimeters to 1 cm), ill-defined, nodular opacity that is often centrilobular in location and is non-specific, seen in many conditions. Commonly it represents a focal area of consolidation or peribronchiolar inflammation, and can indicate endobronchial spread...
Article

Elbow radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Elbow radiographs are common plain films that are obtained frequently in the emergency department. Summary approach alignment anterior humeral line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the mi...
Article

Medial temporal lobe atrophy score

The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score, also known as Scheltens' scale, is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain...
Article

Neurodegenerative MRI brain (an approach)

Imaging of the brain in patients with suspected neurodegenerative conditions is common and challenging, as in patients with subtle and equivocal signs and symptoms, the imaging findings are also often subtle and equivocal. In many instances, by the time imaging findings are clear cut, then the p...

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