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18 results found

Clothing artifact

Clothing artifacts, like jewelry artifacts, are a regular feature on imaging examinations, especially plain radiographs, but in general are recognized for what they are, either at the time the image is taken by the radiographer, or later by the reporting radiologist. The radiographer will often ...

Breast mass

Breast masses are three-dimensional space-occupying lesions in the breasts. This article provides an overview of the standard BI-RADS terminology used to describe breast masses in radiology reports and other reporting suggestions. Radiographic features Breast masses are described differently b...

Giant breast mass

Giant breast masses are defined as breast masses >5 cm and may represent a late presentation of breast pathology, particularly in developing countries. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of the underlying etiologies for giant breast masses are indistinguishable o...

Breast echotexture

Breast echotexture refers to the background tissue appearance on breast sonography, analogous to breast density/amount of fibroglandular tissue on mammography and MRI. There are three categories of tissue composition according to the BI-RADS lexicon 1: homogeneous background echotexture – fat ...

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study. The biopsy is gene...

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artifact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...


Triangulation is a technique for localizing lesions seen on at least two views on 2D mammography. Technique hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box the nipple on each film must be at the same level use a ruler and place one end over the lesion on the 90° later...

Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex

The nipple areolar complex is a major anatomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inversion enlarged nipple Ben...

Breast calcifications (an approach)

An approach to breast calcifications in terms of imaging evaluation and biopsy aims to distinguish benign from malignant etiologies. This article overviews a general approach to the evaluation of breast calcifications. The types and descriptors of calcifications are detailed separately: breast c...

Screening for breast cancer

Screening for breast cancer includes activities which test members of asymptomatic populations for breast cancer. Many advanced countries have breast screening programs. The most widely adopted method for breast cancer screening is mammography. There are few areas in imaging fraught with more c...

Nipple markers

Nipple markers can be a useful technique in the evaluation of small radiodensities overlying the expected position of the nipple on a chest radiograph. Not uncommonly a small round opacity projects over the lower thorax on a chest radiograph (see: solitary pulmonary nodule). Often, especially i...

Forbidden areas in mammography

In breast imaging, forbidden, check or review areas are zones that, according to Tabár, require special attention in mammographic interpretation. These are: on a mediolateral oblique (MLO) view the "Milky Way" (retromammary fat): a 3-4 cm wide band parallel to the edge of the pectoral muscle ...

Artifacts that mimic breast calcification

Artifacts that mimic breast calcification can arise from a number of external sources of radiopaque material that leave particulate residue on or within the skin. These include: deodorants/antiperspirants, particularly solid applicator products 1 powders, such as those containing talc 2,3 soa...

Breast MRI enhancement curves

Following administration of gadolinium, there can be three possible enhancement (time intensity) kinetic curves for a lesion on breast MRI (these are also applied in other organs such as prostate MRI). These are sometimes termed the Kuhl enhancement curves. type I curve: progressive or persiste...

Breast density

Breast density refers to the amount of fibroglandular tissue in a breast relative to fat. It can significantly vary between individuals and within individuals over a lifetime. Classification There are four descriptors for breast density on mammography in the 5th edition of BI-RADS 1,2: a: the...

Breast MRI

Breast MRI is the most sensitive method (>90%) for the detection of breast cancer, its role in diagnosis and management continues to evolve 13. Terminology Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI provides information about the morphology and function of a lesion with high sensitivity but moderate ...

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules. In al...


Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast, and the resultant images are known as mammograms. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of ...

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