Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

27 results found
Article

Osteoporotic vs pathological vertebral fractures

Discriminating between acute osteoporotic and pathological vertebral fractures is sometimes challenging. This may be especially true in the elderly population, in which both osteoporosis and malignant disease often co-occur, and vertebral fractures of both kinds are common and indeed may coexist...
Article

Rule of Spence

The Rule of Spence is a radiologic method to evaluate the likelihood of injury to the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) on an open mouth AP (“peg”) radiograph. As originally framed, if the combined projection of the lateral masses of the atlas is more than 6.9 mm beyond the lateral masses of th...
Article

CT ankle (protocol)

The CT ankle protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the ankle and rearfoot and is almost always performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries or can encompass the whole foot in certa...
Article

Gamma nail

The gamma nail or trochanteric nail is an osteosynthetic implant designed to treat proximal femoral fractures in the trochanter area with a closed intramedullary fixation method. The gamma nail consists of a funnel-shaped intramedullary nail with slight bending to reflect proximal femoral diaph...
Article

Clothing artifact

Clothing artifacts, like jewelry artifacts, are a regular feature on imaging examinations, especially plain radiographs, but in general are recognized for what they are, either at the time the image is taken by the radiographer, or later by the reporting radiologist. The radiographer will often ...
Article

Point-of-care ultrasound (curriculum)

The point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core applications of ultrasonography in a point-of-care setting. Point-of-care ultrasound refers to ultrasonography which may be simultaneously performed,...
Article

Aortic pseudoaneurysm vs ductus diverticulum

Differentiation of aortic pseudoaneurysm from ductus diverticulum is critical, particularly in the trauma setting. A traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a surgical emergency whereas a ductus diverticulum is a normal anatomic variant. The following are differentiating features: Aortic pseudoaneu...
Article

CT polytrauma (approach)

Below is an approach used for the "primary survey" of a CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT or whole body CT), often performed at the CT console with the patient still on the CT table. It allows rapid communication of significant findings to the trauma team as well as the decision ...
Article

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
Article

CHALICE rule

The Children’s Head injury ALgorithm for prediction of Clinically Important Events (CHALICE) clinical decision rule was developed to predict clinically important brain injuries in children with head trauma. This rule identifies high-risk criteria and divides them into history, examination and me...
Article

Canadian CT head rule

The Canadian CT head rule (CCTHR) is a validated clinical decision rule to determine the need for CT head in adult emergency department patients with minor head injuries. Inclusion criteria Patient has suffered minor head trauma with resultant: loss of consciousness GCS 13-15 confusion amn...
Article

PECARN traumatic brain injury algorithm

The PECARN (Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) traumatic brain injury algorithm is a clinical decision rule that aims to identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) 1. This validated pediatric algorithm predicts likelihood of the abo...
Article

Dolan's lines

Dolan's lines are the collective name given to three lines described by Dolan and Jacoby 1 that aid in evaluating for maxillofacial fractures on an occipitomental skull radiograph. They are usually used as an adjunct to McGrigor-Campbell lines. orbital line traces the inner margins of the later...
Article

McGrigor-Campbell lines

McGrigor-Campbell lines are imaginary lines traced across the face on an occipitomental (Waters) view skull radiograph to assess for fractures of the middle third (especially) of the face3: first line is traced from one zygomaticofrontal suture to another, across the superior edge of the orbits...
Article

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia describes the traumatic disruption of musculature and fascia of anterior abdominal wall without skin penetration. Clinical presentation Abdominal skin ecchymosis or abrasions may be seen. Pathology Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is caused by blunt trauma to t...
Article

Amsterdam wrist rules

The Amsterdam wrist rules are validated clinical decision rules for determining which patients require radiographic imaging (wrist radiography) for acute wrist pain following trauma. The initial study evaluated 882 patients and were published in 2015 1. The decision rules assessed different clin...
Article

Rapid ultrasound in shock

The rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstruc...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria used to determine when CT angiography of the neck is indicated to detect blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma patients.  Screening criteria The Denver criteria were initially developed in 1996 1, modified in 2005 to limit the types o...
Article

CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
Article

Extradural hematoma vs subdural hematoma

Differentiating extradural (EDH) from subdural (SDH) hemorrhage in the head is usually straightforward, but occasionally it can be challenging. SDHs are more common and there are a few distinguishing features which are usually reliable. Pathology History and mechanism of injury Extradural hem...
Article

Describing a fracture (an approach)

Describing a fracture is a basic requirement when making an assessment of a plain radiograph. There are many ways to approach the assessment of the radiograph; this is just one approach. I: Describe the radiograph What radiograph (or radiographs) are you looking at? Check the who, what, why, w...
Article

Isolated free fluid in trauma

Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.  Epidemiology The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4. Pathology The c...
Article

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.  It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical a...
Article

Stieda fracture

Stieda fractures refer to a bony avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) at the medial femoral condyle. When it fails to unite, it is known as a Pellegrini Stieda lesion. It should not be confused with a Stieda process fracture of the talus. Clinical presentation Avulsion of t...
Article

Gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning, and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries,...
Article

Joint effusion

A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small amount of physiological intra-articular fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulation can result from inflammation, infection (i.e. pus) or trauma and might be exudate, tr...
Article

Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax, sometimes abbreviated to PTX, (plural: pneumothoraces) refers to the presence of gas (often air) in the pleural space. When this collection of gas is constantly enlarging with resulting compression of mediastinal structures, it can be life-threatening and is known as a tension pneu...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.