Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

538 results found
Article

Glasgow-Blatchford score

The Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) is a widely-used and well-validated scoring system for upper GI bleeding and the need for intervention. Score The scoring system relies upon knowing the patient's urea, hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and several other criteria. Each criterion is scored,...
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Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures

The Tronzo classification of trochanteric fractures is a classification system used when assessing intertrochanteric fractures. The Tronzo classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Due to its simplicity, the Tronzo classification has become the preferr...
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Effman Classification of urethral duplication

The Effman classification is a widely adopted system to classify the several distinct types of urethral duplication. It's considered to be the most complete classification from a clinical and functional point of view, but it's only based on male forms and does not distinguish sagittal from coron...
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Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures

The Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures, also known as the Herbert and Fisher classification, is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing scaphoid fractures. The Herbert classification is proposed to provide a guide to the management of these fractures. Cl...
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Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS)

The Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS) is an algorithm developed and proposed by the Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards Committee of the Society of Skeletal Radiology for the diagnostic workup of incidentally encountered solitary bone lesions in adults on MRI and/or CT 1. Class...
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Practical classification of forearm fractures

The practical classification of forearm fractures is a simple descriptive classification system commonly used when assessing forearm fractures, especially in the pediatric population. Although simple, the classification provides a good guide to the management. These characteristics allow for a ...
Article

Karnofsky performance status

The Karnofsky performance status (KPS) is a standardized measure of a patient’s ability to perform a variety of ordinary tasks. It is a score that ranges from 0 to 100 with a higher score indicating higher (less impaired) function. It is widely used in trials and allows for patient groups to be ...
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Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures

The Green and O'Brien classification of thumb metacarpal fractures is a commonly used classification system when assessing thumb metacarpal fractures. However, since most types of fractures coincide with famous eponymous fractures, the system itself isn't usually used properly, giving preferenc...
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Mayo classification of olecranon fractures

The Mayo classification of olecranon fractures is one of the most frequently used classification systems when assessing olecranon fractures. The Mayo classification can be used to aid in treatment choice. Mayo type II and III fractures usually require operative treatment. Classification The M...
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Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Center score

The Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score is a classification system for grading acute traumatic spinal cord injury based on the axial extent of intramedullary signal abnormality on T2 weighted MRI. Classification The BASIC score is an ordinal scale that is graded 0 to 4 1: BASIC 0 (no...
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Robinson classification of clavicle fractures

The Robinson classification of clavicle fractures, as well as the AO/OTA and Neer classification systems, is a frequently used classification system for assessing clavicular fractures. The Robinson classification is based on a review of a thousand patients and was developed to provide a guide t...
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Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Tuli classification of occipital condyle fractures is a clinically-oriented system for describing these injuries based on fracture displacement and ligamentous injury. It is newer than the more well-known Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures and allows the inc...
Article

Double beak sign

The double beak sign refers to the sudden tapering that two adjacent intestinal loops show in the internal hernia at the transition point of the closed loop obstruction. The marked reduction in caliber results in distension of the afferent and efferent intestinal loops. History and etymology I...
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Nunley-Vertullo classification

The Nunley-Vertullo classification is one of several classification systems used for the categorization of Lisfranc injuries. It is based on clinical, x-ray and bone scan findings and also associates the stages with management options or recommendations regarding those injuries 1-3. Usage The ...
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IOTA-ADNEX model

The ADNEX (Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa) model is a risk model developed by the IOTA (International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) group to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms of the ovary and, among them, four different subgroups (borderline, stage I cancer, stage II-IV ca...
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Landells classification of atlas fractures

The Landells (and van Peteghem) classification of fractures of the atlas is one of the commonly used systems to describe C1 vertebral injuries. Classification Fractures are classified by their involvement of the C1 anterior arch, posterior arch, and/or lateral mass 1: type I: confined to eith...
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Heidelberg bleeding classification

The Heidelberg bleeding classification categorizes intracranial hemorrhages occurring after ischemic stroke and reperfusion therapy. Anatomic description Class 1: hemorrhagic transformation of infarcted brain tissue 1a: HI1: scattered small petechiae, no mass effect 1b: HI2: confluent petech...
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WHO classification of skin tumors

The World Health Organizatiοn classification of skin tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for skin tumors. The most recent edition is the 4th, which was published in 2018 1.  The radiologically relevant and common entities are reflected below. Classification  1. Kera...
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Classification system article structure

Articles about classification systems have their own specific structure. Please also see reproduction of classification systems. ================================================================= Formatting of the classification system article title and use of the classification system name th...
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Clermont score

The Clermont or DWI-MaRIA scoring system is used to assess ileocolonic Crohn disease activity on noncontrast MRI enterography. It is based on the earlier Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) index, however, it does not require intravenous gadolinium by substituting relative contrast enha...
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Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures. Classification Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types: type 1: minimally/nondisp...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (diagnostic criteria)

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, alternatively Takotsubo syndrome, is a primary acquired cardiomyopathy characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. Several sets of diagnostic criteria exist and are variably utile in various clinical and research settings. International Takotsubo Diagnosti...
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Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA)

The Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) scoring system is used to assess ileocolonic Crohn disease activity on contrast-enhanced MRI enterography. The segmental index represents disease severity in one bowel segment, whilst assessing six defined anatomic regions these can be combined in...
Article

AO classification of distal femur fractures

The AO classification of distal femoral fractures is one of the commonly used fracture classification systems in orthopedics. Each long bone has a single number with the parts of the bone denoted numerically, the proximal end is 1, diaphysis is 2, and the distal end is 3.  The distal femur sys...
Article

Not elsewhere classified (NEC)

Not elsewhere classified (NEC) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been fully characterized but whose features are contradictory and/or do not fit into established classifications.  Not elsewhere classified (NEC) should not, however, be confused wi...
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Not otherwise specified (NOS)

Not otherwise specified (NOS) is a term used in a variety of classification systems to denote an entity that has been only incompletely characterized; enough for a general diagnosis but not to the point of a complete diagnosis.  The definition and use will vary between different classification ...
Article

Lumbar spinal stenosis (grading)

Lumbar spinal stenosis grading refers to systems for classifying the severity of central spinal canal narrowing around the cauda equina nerve roots.  Usage The two most popular systems, both applied to visual assessment of MRI, are the Lee grading system, and the Schizas grading system. Both t...
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Van Assche index

The Van Assche index is a semiquantitative scoring system originally developed in 2003 to assess the severity and disease response in perianal fistulizing Crohn disease. In 2017 substantial changes were proposed to the original system, resulting in the modified Van Assche index. Both system rema...
Article

Bile duct duplication

Bile duct duplication, also known as common bile duct duplication (although in some cases this latter terminology would be erroneous), is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system. A double bile duct is considered normal during early human development, but by birth, we expect to see the co...
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Anectasis

Anectasis is a term that describes primary atelectasis, as distinct from secondary atelectasis. Anectasis refers to the failure of the lung to expand fully at birth. See also atelectasis
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Bone lymphoma

Lymphoma of the bone may represent lymphoma that has originated within that bone itself i.e. primary, or metastasized there from another organ/tissue, i.e. secondary. Secondary forms of bone lymphoma are much more common than the primary bone form. primary osseous lymphoma secondary osseous ly...
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NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury

The NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) is a scheme for structured contextual reporting of CT head examinations of suspected head injuries. The NIRIS was proposed 1 in 2018 by a multi-institute group of neuroradiologists based at Stanford University. Its unique objective is ...
Article

Entorhinal cortical atrophy score

The entorhinal cortical atrophy (ERICA) score has been developed as an alternative to the medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score to help visually identify patients with Alzheimer disease by evaluating the entorhinal cortex for volume loss 1. Usage An ERICA score of 2 or 3 (see below) has bee...
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LaPrade classification system of meniscal root tears

The LaPrade classification system of meniscal root tears characterizes meniscal root tears based on morphology. The system was originally conceived based on arthroscopy 1,2.  Usage It has to be emphasized that this is a primarily arthroscopic classification system, however, the same morphologi...
Article

Modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

The modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, employing clinical findings and imaging appearances, is used to categorize ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) into the following three categories of severity with five grades 1,2: mild OHSS: characterized by bilateral...
Article

Bishop score

The Bishop score is a criterion for successful induction of labor, vaginal delivery and includes the age of gestation, parity, presenting part of the fetus, previous history of childbirths and consent of the patient. This score decides whether a patient needs cervical ripening or not 1,4. Bisho...
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Hamate fracture (classification)

Hamate fractures are an uncommon form of carpal bone fractures and only account for 1-2% of such fractures. Classification Hamate fractures usually get subdivided into two broad groups: hook fractures and body fractures. Classification of hamate fractures: type 1: hook of hamate fracture ty...
Article

Parathyroid proliferative disease

Parathyroid proliferative disease is the collective term for a spectrum of parathyroid disorders 1: parathyroid adenoma parathyroid carcinoma parathyroid atypical adenoma: controversial entity parathyroid hyperplasia primary chief cell hyperplasia primary water-clear cell hyperplasia (rare...
Article

Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Anderson and Montesano classification is a widely used system for describing occipital condyle fractures. It divides injuries into three types based on morphology and mechanism of injury 1-5. Classification type I: impacted type occipital condyle fracture morphology: comminution of the co...
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Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations

The Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations describes injuries of the atlanto-occipital joint according to the displacement of the occipital condyles relative to the atlas: type I: anterior displacement type II: longitudinal distraction (superior-inferior displacement) type...
Article

Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019)

The Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019), or usually simply Bosniak classification, version 2019, is a proposed update of the classic/current Bosniak criteria. The update hopes to improve on the classification's predictive power for malignancy and minimize the number of b...
Article

AO/OTA classification of distal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying distal tibial fractures or tibial distal end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraarticular...
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AO/OTA classification of malleolar fractures

The AO/OTA classification of malleolar segment fractures is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying malleolar fractures. It takes the Danis-Weber classification into account and can be correlated to the Lauge-Hansen classification. Malleolar fractures are divided into three grou...
Article

International Classification of Diseases

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems constitutes a diagnostic classification standard and tool for all health disorders including epidemiological, clinical, research and health management issues. It...
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Wassel classification for radial polydactyly

The Wassel classification system is used to classify pre-axial polydactyly, also called radial polydactyly. The classification system is based on the level of duplication from distal to proximal. I: bifid distal phalanx II: duplicated distal phalanx III: bifid proximal phalanx IV: duplicate...
Article

Segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries

The segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries has been originally developed and published by the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and the American Heart Association (AHA). It is widely used for the description of coronary findings in particular within the scope of coronary artery disease. Cor...
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Imaging Reporting and Data System, (O-RADS), aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately assigning each lesion to a risk category of malignancy being present, and which informs the appropria...
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Herring (Lateral Pillar) classification of Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease

Classification of Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease based on the height of the lateral pillar: Group A : No involvement of the lateral pillar with no density changes identified. Group B : at least 50% of the lateral pillar height maintained Group C: less than 50% of the lateral pillar maintained Th...
Article

Terminology of rectal cancer staging

The terminology used in describing the stage and features of rectal cancer staging is based on using abbreviations and prefixes to denote the specific stage identifier, modality of assessment and the patient's position in the treatment journey 1. Terminology Abbreviations and letters used in s...
Article

WHO classification of prostate tumors

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of prostate tumors is a commonly used classification system for prostate tumors. The current version was published in 2016 as part of the  WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs 1,2 and replaces the previous c...
Article

International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification

International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) result from an expert consensus, developed to improve the ability of the surgeon to understand the possible variations of the frontal recess and frontal sinus anatomy. Classification anterior cells: push the drainage pathway of the fron...
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Koos grading scale

The Koos grading scale 1 is frequently used as a classification system for vestibular schwannomas. Classification grade 1: small intracanalicular tumor grade 2: small tumor with protrusion into the cerebellopontine cistern (CPA); no contact with the brainstem grade 3: tumor occupying the cer...
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Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) forms the MRI component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there is a uniform, unambiguous MRI evaluation of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately ...
Article

Gertzbein and Robbins classification

The Gertzbein and Robbins classification assesses the position of transpedicular screws. Classification Transpedicular screw position is graded from A to E based on the extent by which the screw breaches the cortex of the pedicle 1-3: A: fully intrapedicular position without breach of the ped...
Article

Tile classification of pelvic fractures

The Tile classification of pelvic fractures is the precursor of the more contemporary Young and Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures. It takes into account stability, force direction, and pathoanatomy. The integrity of the posterior arch determines the grade, with the posterior arch ...
Article

Frontal mucocele

A frontal mucocele is a paranasal sinus mucocele in a frontal sinus and is the most common location of all the paranasal sinus mucoceles 1. Clinical presentation Mucocoeles in the frontal sinus may be asymptomatic with insidious onset or present with headaches 2 and facial pain. Forehead (supr...
Article

Lumbar foraminal stenosis

Lumbar foraminal stenosis or lumbar neuroforaminal stenosis is described as narrowing of the neural exit foramina. It is a common cause of backache and/or radiculopathy and is assessed as part of the routine evaluation of lumbar MRI studies to determine what impact, if any, the surrounding struc...
Article

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (more commonly known as the DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association and is the most widely used guide to psychiatric diseases in clinical practice and research globally. The first edition was published in 1952; the lates...
Article

Orgogozo stroke scale

The Orgogozo stroke scale was designed to assess middle cerebral artery stroke 1-3. This scale's use has become rarer in contemporary literature due to the widespread adoption of the NIH Stroke Scale, however basic knowledge may assist interpretation of older literature 4,5. Classification co...
Article

Scandinavian Stroke Scale

The Scandinavian Stroke Scale was designed for ease of use by non-neurologists1. It is simpler than the NIHSS and has comparable performance in predicting death or dependence after stroke 2. The degree of neurological impairment measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale has been shown to correla...
Article

Mathew stroke scale

The Mathew stroke scale is used to measure the degree of impairment from stroke 1. It was originally developed to evaluate the neurological status of patients treated with glycerol in acute stroke.  Classification level of consciousness: comatose (0), stuporous (2), obtunded (4), lethargic but...
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Canadian Neurological Scale

The Canadian Neurological Scale is a validated tool to evaluate stroke severity 1,2 designed to be performed on patients who are alert or drowsy. Patients who are stuporous or comatose are evaluated with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) instead. Classification Section A is completed first. In the ...
Article

ARCO classification of osteonecrosis

The ARCO classification (Association Research Circulation Osseous classification) is one of the staging systems used in the assessment of femoral head osteonecrosis. It was originally created in 1994 and periodically revised. The most recent revision from 2019 2 includes the use of radiographs a...
Article

Smoker's criteria

Smoker’s criteria use three quantitative measures of basilar artery morphology to diagnose dolichoectasia:  laterality bifurcation height ​surrogate measures for tortuosity and elongation basilar artery diameter represents the degree of dilatation The application of Smoker’s criteria provid...
Article

Intravesical prostatic protrusion

Intravesical prostatic protrusion is an anatomical feature that may be present in some patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) being characterized by the enlargement of the prostate towards the floor of the bladder 1,2. Clinical Presentation Intravesical prostatic protrusion is correl...
Article

de Carvalho index (knee)

The de Carvalho index is used to measure patellar height and identify patella alta. Similar to the Caton-Deschamps index, it relies upon the length of the patellar articular surface and its distance from the tibia, reducing erroneous measurements in those with long patella bodies, as measured in...
Article

Strasberg classification of bile duct injury

The Strasberg classification of bile duct injury is a widely used system to anatomically define these injuries by location 1.  Classification type A: injury to the cystic duct or from minor hepatic ducts draining the liver bed type B: occlusion of the biliary tree, commonly aberrant right hep...
Article

Perugini grading scale

The Perugini grading scale is a semi-quantitative method of scoring cardiac uptake following injection of 99mTc-DPD, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate or 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy in the investigation of cardiac amyloidosis. Classification grade 0: no cardiac uptake and normal bone uptake grade 1: cardiac up...
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Herder risk model

British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for pulmonary nodules1 recommend the application of the Herder risk model in predicting malignancy in pulmonary nodules. The Herder model 2 predicts the risk of malignancy in solid pulmonary nodules using patient characteristics, nodules characteristics...
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Elbow instability

Elbow instability refers to an excessive, usually painful, mobility in the elbow joint, most of the time as a result of a prior traumatic event or overuse and maybe also seen in patients with connective tissue disease 1,2. Diagnosis The diagnosis of elbow instability can be established with cl...
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Talar body fractures

Talar body fractures are a subtype of talar fractures, subdivided into: talar dome osteochondral fracture posterior talar process fracture lateral talar process fracture
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Elbow injection (disambiguation)

Elbow injection usually refers to an elbow joint injection, but especially to patients, it can be a term used referring to other procedures which include: common extensor origin microtenotomy common flexor origin microtenotomy distal biceps tendon sheath injection elbow joint injection MRI ...
Article

Foot injection (disambiguation)

Foot injection is a non-specific term, often used by patients, in reference to tarsal or metatarsal joint injections, and to other injections which include:​ calcaneocuboid joint injection metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) injection naviculocuneiform joint injection plantar fascia microtenoto...
Article

Ankle injection (disambiguation)

Ankle injection is a general term which can refer to an intra-articular ankle injection but also other injections, particularly by patients, which include:​ Achilles hydrodilation and microtenotomy ankle joint injection MRI arthrogram CT arthrogram anesthetic arthrogram extensor tendon she...
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Knee injection (disambiguation)

Knee injection is a general term and can be made in reference, especially by patients, to multiple procedures which include: common peroneal (fibular) nerve injection knee joint injection MRI arthrogram CT arthrogram anesthetic arthrogram patella tendon microtenotomy proximal tibiofibular...
Article

Hip injection (disambiguation)

Hip injection can refer to an intra-articular injection, but especially to patients, it can be a term used referring to other procedures around the hip which include: common hamstrings origin microtenotomy gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage greater trochanteric bursa injec...
Article

Ideberg classification of glenoid fossa fractures

The Ideberg classification system is the most common system used to describe glenoid fossa and rim fractures 1. Glenoid fractures are uncommon fractures of the shoulder but are important to recognize as they are often associated with concomitant injuries to chest, head, brachial plexus and humer...
Article

Atzei classification of peripheral TFCC tears

The Atzei classification of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears offers a more differentiated approach on a spectrum of peripherally located triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears, which are classically summarized as “Palmer 1b” lesions 1-3. Usage Peripheral lesion...
Article

Salter-Harris type V fracture

Salter-Harris type V fractures are very uncommon injuries that occur in children. These fractures involve a crush injury of the physis secondary to compressive forces that involve all or part of the physis 1,2. In general Salter-Harris fractures are childhood injuries where there is a fracture t...
Article

Salter-Harris type IV fracture

Salter-Harris type IV fractures are relatively uncommon injuries that occur in children. They are intra-articular injuries in which the fracture extends through the epiphysis, across the physis and through the metaphysis. Salter-Harris fractures are a group childhood injuries where a fracture in...
Article

Depositional arthropathy

Depositional arthropathy refers to a group of joint disorders caused by the depositional of substances within and/or around joints. Diseases include: crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) gout ​​hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD) haemop...
Article

Limberg score

Limberg score is a semiquantitative color Doppler ultrasound assessment of the bowel wall vascularity in inflammatory bowel disease.  grade 0: normal bowel wall with no thickening (<4 mm), well-delineated mural stratification, no mural flow (no color Doppler signal)     grade 1: wall thickenin...
Article

Zone classification of flexor tendon injury

The zone classification of flexor tendon injuries divides injuries into five zones based on anatomical location. It is the most widely used flexor tendon injury classification system (c. 2007) 1. Classification Flexor tendon injuries were classified into five zones by Kleinart and Verdan in 19...
Article

Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS)

The Vesical Imaging–Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric bladder MRI in the evaluation of suspected bladder cancer. A systematic approach to bladder lesion based on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was proposed by the European Association of Urology...
Article

MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS)

MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) is a semi-quantitative scoring tool that was developed from the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) scoring tools. MOAKS has been shown to have very good to excellent reliability.  Scoring ...
Article

Acetabular index

The acetabular index also called acetabular roof angle or Tönnis angle is a radiographic measurement of femoral head bony coverage by the acetabulum. It is useful in assessing for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) as well as pincer morphology in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Measur...
Article

Lateral humeral line

The lateral humeral line is used to confirm the alignment of the pediatric radiocapitellar joint in the coronal plane 1. This is particularly important in injuries such as a Monteggia fracture-dislocation or in a radial neck fracture. Measurement The lateral humeral line is drawn on a pediatri...
Article

Walch classification of glenoid morphology

The Walch classification of glenoid morphology in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis is the most commonly used system to describe this pathology.  It was initially measured on 5 mm thick slices on axial CT scans of the shoulder 1, which had mixed results for inter- and intra-observer agreement...
Article

MRI grading system for bone stress injuries

MRI grading system for bone stress injuries​ is a useful tool in assessing the extent of clinical findings related to bone stress injury and predicting the time to return to full activity, the latter being especially important for athletes.  Classifications Fredericson grading system Frederic...
Article

Patterns of normal bone marrow distribution in the spine

Patterns of normal bone marrow distribution in the spine have been described by Ricci 1. They apply to patients from the age of 6 months. Gross anatomy There are four patterns of normal red and yellow bone marrow distribution, with great variability not only between patients, but between respe...
Article

Neer classification of clavicle fractures

The Neer classification of clavicular fractures along with the AO classification system is one of the more frequently used classification systems when assessing clavicular fractures. Classification The classification system, broken into five categories communicates both the stability and treat...
Article

AO classification of clavicle fractures

The AO classification of clavicular fractures along with the Neer classification system is one of the more frequently used classification systems when assessing distal clavicular fractures. Classification The classification system, broken into three categories focuses on the displacement and p...
Article

Modified Lodwick-Madewell classification of lytic bone lesions

The modified Lodwick-Madewell classification is a system for describing the radiographic appearance of a lytic bone lesion. It was proposed in 2016 as a successor to the Lodwick classification and better reflects the risk of malignancy with increasing grade 1. Classification 1A: well-defined,...

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