Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

715 results found
Article

Submandibular gland enlargement

Submandibular gland enlargement refers to an increase in the volume of the submandibular gland, exceeding "normal" values of 7.4 ± 1.8 mL 1. Pathology Causes Obstruction sialolithiasis submandibular duct stenosis (e.g. tumor, granulomatous disease) Infection acute sialadenitis: following ...
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Finger pathology

Finger pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the hand and foot digits. Congenital brachydactyly - short digits brachymetatarsia - short metatarsal arachnodactyly - elongated, thin "spider-like" digits 1 polydactyly (...
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Hypovascular retroperitoneal lesions

Hypovascular retroperitoneal lesions are those which do not enhance in the late arterial and portal venous phases on CT. Some of these lesions may show progressive enhancement in the delayed phase due to their fibrous or myxoid matrix components. Non-enhancing lesions retroperitoneal lipoma r...
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Hypervascular retroperitoneal lesions

Hypervascular retroperitoneal lesions are findings that enhance avidly in the late arterial phase with or without washout in the portal venous and delayed phases, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Early enhancement with slow washout sympathetic paragangliomas retroperitoneal paragangliomas - of...
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Inferior vena caval contrast reflux

Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates. Conditions associate...
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Penile calcification

Penile calcifications are a relatively rare finding. The commonest cause is Peyronie disease. Pathology Etiology Peyronie disease penile calciphylaxis (considered by some to be a form of calcinosis cutis) penile urethral calculus calcinosis cutis of the penis idiopathic calcinosis cutis o...
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Symmetrical cerebral T2 hyperintensities

Symmetrical cerebral T2/FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in a broad range of pathologies. The differential depends essentially on the location of the lesions. Symmetrical corticospinal tract lesions amyotrophic lateral sclerosis symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities along the corticospinal tra...
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Cerebellar restricted diffusion

Cerebellar restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the cerebellum on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease cerebellar arterial infarction  1 AICA infarction PICA infarction superior cerebellar arterial infarct ce...
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Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions are a rare appearance of both benign and malignant conditions. Differential diagnosis benign complicated hepatic cyst 2 hepatic abscess 2 chronic hepatic hematoma 3 biliary cystadenoma 3 hepatic hemangioma (very rare) 2 malignant cystic/necrotic hepat...
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Uterine restricted diffusion

Uterine restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the endometrium, myometrium, or cervix on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images, with a mean cut-off ADC value for malignancy of 1.15 x 10-3 mm2/s 7. Endometrial restricted diffusion malignant endometrial...
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Hypervascular splenic lesions

Hypervascular splenic lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background splenic parenchyma on late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Vascular mycotic aneurysm Neoplastic splenic hemangioma 2 most common primary benign neoplasm of the spleen second most com...
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Differential diagnosis for PV bleeding (non-pregnant patients)

Per vaginal (PV) bleeding in a non-pregnant patient is a common clinical presentation with a multitude of causes. The potential causes vary with the patient's menstrual status. A well-known mnemonic is found here. Premenopausal fibroids cervical cancer adenomyosis endometriosis polycystic...
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Periportal lymphadenopathy (differential)

Periportal lymphadenopathy can be a common observation during imaging of the upper abdomen. What is considered the exact upper limit of normal has been variable 1,3 among different publications but with many authors suggesting a cut-off of around 10 mm in short axis diameter. Pathology Etiolog...
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Optic nerve calcification

Optic nerve calcification is a rare radiological finding, with only a short differential diagnosis, many of which have only been described in isolated case reports 1-4. Differential diagnosis optic nerve meningioma optic nerve head drusen idiopathic dural optic nerve sheath calcification ca...
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Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember differentials causing diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI. Bone marrow infiltration is best evaluated on T1 sequences and may be focal or diffuse. Focal infiltration is seen in metastases and lymphoma. The diffuse pattern is seen more commonly in multiple myeloma, mast...
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Spinal epidural cystic lesions

Spinal epidural cystic lesions are fluid-filled lesions within the spinal canal but outside the thecal sac. Their clinical significance is as a potential contributor to spinal cord or nerve root impingement. Simple appearing spinal epidural cysts may represent several entities that differ by ori...
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Hypervascular pancreatic lesions

Hypervascular pancreatic lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background pancreatic parenchyma in the late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Anatomical variants intrapancreatic accessory spleen: should not be overdiagnosed as a malignant tumor  Vascular ano...
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Intrapancreatic gas

The presence of gas in the pancreatic gland and/or the pancreatic ducts is an uncommon finding. Pathology Etiology Causes of gas in the pancreatic ducts altered function and/or anatomy of the sphincter of Oddi: causes duodenal-pancreatic duct reflux patulous pancreatic duct opening 2  papi...
Article

Renal emphysema

Renal emphysema, or intrarenal gas, refers to the presence of gas within the kidney, with or without extension to the urinary tract. It is a rare finding and only a few differentials need to be considered 1: infections  emphysematous pyelonephritis 1 iatrogenic instrumentation biopsy surge...
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Intraosseous gas

Intraosseous gas, also known as osseous pneumatosis, refers to the accumulation of gas bubbles within the cortical bone, trabecular bone, the bone marrow, or in the medullary cavity. Intraosseous gas is an uncommon finding and differentials include 1,2:  infections emphysematous osteomyelitis...
Article

Leave alone lesions - maxillodental

Maxillodental leave alone lesions are usually incidental findings that do not require treatment nor follow-up if the patient is asymptomatic. This article includes findings from orthopantomogram, cone-beam CT, and sinus CT studies. Do not touch: benign lesions tooth ankylosis hypercementosi...
Article

Leave alone lesions - skull base

Leave alone lesions of the skull base refers to incidental findings that do not require treatment nor follow-up. This article includes findings from brain CT, HRCT of the temporal bone, and MRI studies. Do not touch: arrested pneumatization of the skull base - sphenoid benign fatty lesion 1 ...
Article

Leave alone lesions - paranasal sinuses

Leave alone lesions are findings that are usually discovered incidentally and do not require any specific treatment or follow-up if the patient is asymptomatic. This article includes findings from paranasal sinus CT and MRI studies. physiological process nasal cycle anatomical variants conc...
Article

Bilateral temporal lobe T2 hyperintensity

Bilateral temporal lobe T2 hyperintensity refers to hyperintense signal involving the temporal lobes on T2 weighted and FLAIR imaging. It is a common finding on brain MRI and a wide range of differentials should be considered 1. Causes include: neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementi...
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Cerebral cortical calcification

Cerebral cortical calcification or gyral calcification refers to curvilinear calcifications involving the cerebral cortex. Causes include: vascular ischemic stroke sequelae arteriovenous malformation TORCH infection congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis congenital cytomegalovirus infection p...
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Cerebral cortical T1 hyperintensity

Cerebral cortical T1 hyperintensity or gyriform T1 hyperintensity refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on T1-weighted images on brain MRI. Causes include: accumulation of denatured proteins and/or lipid-laden macrophages cortical laminar necrosis 2 accumula...
Article

Cerebral cortical T2 hyperintensity

Cerebral cortical T2 hyperintensity or gyriform T2 hyperintensity refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on T2 weighted and FLAIR imaging. The causes include: developmental anomalies focal cortical dysplasia neoplastic glioblastoma1 vascular thrombo-occlusi...
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Cerebral cortical restricted diffusion

Cerebral cortical restricted diffusion or gyriform restricted diffusion refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Causes include: Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease (most common) 1 ischemic stroke cort...
Article

Bilateral pleural effusion

Bilateral pleural effusions can be common in general radiology practice. They may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. They can occur from several varied etiologies although congestive heart failure (CHF), renal or liver failure are generally considered common 1.   Recognized list of causes are many...
Article

Cirrhotic liver nodules - differential

Differential diagnoses of cirrhotic liver nodules include regenerative liver nodules, dysplastic liver nodules, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), all represent a spectrum of diseases ranging from non-neoplastic reparative process (regenerative) to nuclear atypia (dysplastic) to typical neoplas...
Article

Epiglottic enlargement

Epiglottic enlargement is often seen on lateral neck radiographs and it's accepted to confirm clinical suspicion of acute epiglottitis only on this finding 1. However, an enlarged epiglottitis has a wide range of differentials that should be considered. neoplasm hemangioma lymphangioma carci...
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Ureteral calcification

Ureteral calcification refers to the presence of calcium concretions within the ureteral lumen or wall. Common ureteric calculi Uncommon neoplastic 3 transitional cell carcinoma hemangioma papilloma infections tuberculosis 1 schistosomiasis of the urinary tract iatrogenic radiation u...
Article

Fat containing brain lesions

Intracranial fat is uncommon and a wide range of differentials should be considered. Neoplastic intracranial dermoid cyst intracranial teratoma intracranial lipoma pericallosal lipoma quadrigeminal cistern lipoma suprasellar cistern lipoma cerebellopontine angle lipoma choroid plexus li...
Article

Optic canal enlargement

Optic canal enlargement can be caused by numerous etiologies. Pathology The optic canal has an average transverse diameter of 3.6 ± 0.6 mm 1. The optic canal can be considered enlarged when it is >6.5 mm in transverse diameter 4. Etiology glioma of optic nerve meningioma of optic nerve shea...
Article

Hemithoracic volume loss (differential)

Hemithoracic volume loss can occur from a number of situations. These include: Congenital  pulmonary hypoplasia (unilateral) isolated unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis skeletal deformities - e.g. kyphosis,  Acquired Infection in childhood  Swyer-James syndrome Other infective/inflamma...
Article

Mass-forming chronic pancreatitis

Mass-forming chronic pancreatitis occurs in around 30% of cases of chronic pancreatitis, where a mass or a focal enlargement of the pancreas is usually seen on imaging. In many instances, it poses a challenge as the epidemiology and imaging appearances overlap those of pancreatic adenocarcinoma....
Article

Giant cell carcinoma of the lung

Giant cell carcinomas of the lung are a rare type of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) classified under sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lungs. Epidemiology They represent less than 0.5% of all NSCLC 2. There is a recognized association with smoking 1.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are n...
Article

Bronchial stenosis

Bronchial stenosis, or bronchial strictures, are descriptive terms to denote regions of focal narrowing involving the bronchi. They can arise from a wide variety of etiologies. Pathology Etiology It can arise from a large range of etiological factors, which include: tracheobronchial malignan...
Article

Duodenal stricture

A duodenal stricture refers to a segment of narrowing involving the duodenum. They can occur from a range of benign infective - inflammatory to malignant etiology. They can contribute to gastric outlet obstruction. Pathology Etiology infective/inflammatory  duodenitis regional inflammation:...
Article

Isolated diffuse ground-glass opacification

Isolated diffuse ground-glass opacification/opacity (GGO) has a relatively well-defined differential diagnosis although this remains broad and clinical correlation, like many respiratory diseases, is key to diagnosis.  Differential diagnosis Miller et al. have described the following different...
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Traversal of lung fissures

Only a small number of pulmonary diseases are known to directly traverse the lung fissures such that the lung pathology extends from one lobe via the interlobar fissure into an adjacent lobe 1. The finding is most commonly due to primary malignancy, however, some infections are also known to do ...
Article

Vacuum phenomenon

Vacuum phenomena describe aseptic gas collections (e.g. nitrogen and traces of oxygen and or carbon dioxide) within different specific tissues 1-3. Usually, they are seen within the intervertebral discs, the bones and within different joints, but can also be seen in other usually adjacent locati...
Article

Cavernous sinus gas

Cavernous sinus gas locules can be seen in several settings. iatrogenic pneumocephalus secondary to gas embolism (especially venous gas embolism) from IV access (can be a relatively common finding in the absence of direct trauma and does not require treatment). traumatic pneumocephalus: in the...
Article

Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome

Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome, also referred only as disconnected pancreatic duct, refers to the symptoms and complications due to the complete discontinuity of the main pancreatic duct between segments of viable secreting pancreatic tissue and the duodenum, usually seen as a sequela of ...
Article

High-risk pregnancy

High-risk pregnancies are any that actually or potentially threaten either the health or life of the mother or her fetus during pregnancy, labor, or birth. From a radiological perspective, high-risk pregnancies may undergo further screening or have close follow-up with growth and well-being scan...
Article

Abnormal testicular Doppler flow (differential)

Abnormal testicular Doppler flow (arterial, venous, or both) can be a differential challenge. Always remember that the patient's presenting history helps quite a bit in narrowing the differential. Reduced flow partial testicular torsion (<360 degrees) venous outflow is obstructed first, resul...
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Esophageal wall thickening

Esophageal wall thickening can be observed in a number of situations and can be either focal or diffuse. It may be physiological, and can also be due to benign or malignant disorders. Pathology Causes diffuse diffuse esophageal spasm forms of esophagitis diffuse esophageal intramural hemat...
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Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation

Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation refers to a region of lung parenchyma with air space opacification that has higher attenuation on CT than muscle or than expected with typical causes of consolidation such as pneumonia (fluid attenuation) or cancer (soft tissue attenuation). The differen...
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Gyral enhancement

Gyral enhancement, also known as gyriform, cortical, or grey matter enhancement, is a pattern of contrast enhancement in the superficial brain parenchyma that conforms to the serpentine morphology of the cerebral gyri. It should be distinguished from leptomeningeal enhancement, which is also ser...
Article

Diffuse airway narrowing

Diffuse airway narrowing can occur from a number of pathologies; these include: relapsing polychondritis ulcerative colitis amyloidosis: tracheobronchial sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangiitis tracheopathia osteochondroplastica various infections including tracheobronchial papillom...
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Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt

Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts, also referred to as intrahepatic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or hepatic arteriosystemic venous shunts, represent a spectrum of abnormal communications between the hepatic arterial system and the hepatic veins.  Please note that arterioportal shunts, whi...
Article

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a classification of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is not due to left ventricular dysfunction. Causes include: fluid overload pulmonary edema with acute asthma post-obstructive pulmonary edema/postintubation pulmonary edema/negative pressure ...
Article

Retrorectal developmental cysts

Retrorectal developmental cysts are rare and mostly congenital benign lesions found in the retrorectal space:  spectrum of cystic teratomas retrorectal epidermoid cyst retrorectal dermoid cyst retrorectal teratoid cyst enteric cysts duplication cyst of the rectum tailgut duplication cyst ...
Article

Sports injuries: snowsports

Snowsport injuries cover a broad range of activities from skiing and snowboarding to recreational play (e.g. tobogganing, tubing). Epidemiology Snowsports are popular with over 70 million people globally participating each year 1. While the injury rate varies depending on location, a rough ave...
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Periapical radiolucency (teeth)

Periapical radiolucencies are commonly observed findings on OPG and other dental/head and neck imaging modalities. Differential diagnosis They can represent a number of pathologies: periapical lucency related to apical periodontitis periapical granuloma periapical abscess periapical cyst ...
Article

Calcific cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)

Calcific cervical lymphadenopathy is uncommon and has a limited differential diagnosis, including malignant and benign etiologies. The most frequent causes include 1: malignancies (more common) metastatic thyroid carcinoma (most common; papillary or medullary types) 2,5 metastatic adenocarcin...
Article

Lacrimal sac mass

Lacrimal sac masses are very uncommon and more commonly have a malignant (~80%) rather than benign (~20%) etiology.  Pathology Etiology inflammatory granulomatosis with polyangiitis sarcoidosis orbital pseudotumor IgG4-related disease Sjogren syndrome neoplastic epithelial tumors beni...
Article

Fat containing cardiac lesions

Fat containing cardiac lesions have a limited differential diagnosis. These include 1-4: normal aging/physiologic: mostly subepicardial, more in the right ventricle (especially right ventricular outflow tract) than left ventricle lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum chronic myocar...
Article

Intra-articular gas

Intra-articular gas or air (pneumarthrosis) can occur from a number of varied pathologies and should be interpreted according to the clinical context. Causes include trauma  compound injury with gas entering from the outer surface can occur with a pneumolipohaemarthrosis surgical intra-arti...
Article

Hepatosplenomegaly

Hepatosplenomegaly is simply the simultaneous presence of a pathologically-enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and spleen (splenomegaly). Pathology Etiology Infection Many infections can produce a mild concurrent enlargement of the liver and spleen. This list is by no means exhaustive. viral EBV...
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Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon compared to other hepatobiliary malignancies. Pathology Primary gallbladder carcinoma gallbladder adenocarcinoma: most common 1 gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma gallbladder sarcoma: very rare 2 gallbladder ...
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Cardiac calcification

Cardiac calcification is a broad term for any calcification affecting the valves, coronary arteries, aortic root, endocardium, myocardium, and/or pericardium. Pathology Causes of cardiac calcification are: coronary artery disease (most common) coronary artery aneurysms, e.g. in Kawasaki dise...
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Bands in gestational sacs

Band like structures in the gestational sac is not an uncommon finding in the first trimester or second trimester ultrasound scans and can represent a number of varying conditions These include uterine synechiae amniotic bands amniotic shelf circumvallate placenta chorio-amniotic separatio...
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Mastoid air cell opacification

Mastoid air cell opacification can occur in a number of situations and can include a spectrum of inflammatory, neoplastic, vascular, fibro-osseous, and traumatic changes. Possible causes include: otomastoiditis acute otomastoiditis chronic otomastoiditis radiation 3 trauma (temporal bone f...
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Coarse trabecular pattern in bone (differentials)

Coarse trabecular bones can result from a number of causes 1,2: Paget disease (bone) osteoporosis osteomalacia rickets hemaglobinopathies, e.g. thalassemia, chronic iron deficiency anemia 3 Gaucher's disease hyperparathyroidism See also coarse trabecular pattern in bone (mnemonic)
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Linear atelectasis

Linear atelectasis (plural: atelectases), and also known as discoid, plate or band atelectasis, refers to a focal area of subsegmental atelectasis that has a linear shape. Linear atelectasis may appear to be horizontal, oblique or perpendicular and is very common. It usually occurs as a conseque...
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Compressive atelectasis

Compressive atelectasis refers to a form of lung atelectasis due to compression by a space-occupying process. Some authors describe it as a subtype of passive (relaxation) atelectasis where the reduction in lung volume is greater than its normal relaxed state 1. Whereas others describe it as th...
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Lobar consolidation

Lobar consolidation is the term used to describe consolidation in one of the lobes of the lung. It infers an alveolar spread of disease and is most commonly due to pneumonia. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inf...
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Right upper lobe consolidation

Right upper lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right upper lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
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Sports injuries: overhead elbow

Overhead elbow sports injuries are a group of pathologies seen in sports activities with overhead throwing or strokes, e.g. tennis, volleyball, baseball, javelin throwing. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of participants in these sports activities worldwide. Pathology During ...
Article

Gamut

Gamuts in radiology refer to the complete list of differential diagnoses for any radiological finding. We include gamut as a section for articles on Radiopaedia.org. History and etymology According to Maurice Reeder, writing in the preface of his own eponymous text on gamuts, it was the trailb...
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Epiphora

Epiphora (plural: epiphoras) represents excessive tearing of the eye and is a common clinical presentation to ophthalmological practice. It is most frequently due to an obstruction of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. Less commonly, overproduction of tears may be responsible.  Epidemiology ...
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Peribronchovascular thickening

Peribronchovascular thickening is a broad imaging descriptive term commonly used to describe thickening of any one or more of the below: peribronchovascular interstitial thickening bronchial wall thickening: can be differentiated from true peribronchovascular thickening on cross-sectional imag...
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Secondary organizing pneumonia

Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) refers to organizing pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) in which no cause is present.  Pathology Etiology Secondary organizing pneumonia can be attributed to the following causes 1: ...
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Reeder and Felson's Gamuts in Radiology

Reeder and Felson's Gamuts in Radiology, first published in 1975, provided comprehensive lists of radiological differential diagnoses, or gamuts, and was a bestseller for many years. The current publisher is Springer. The first edition was edited and, primarily, written by Ben Felson and Mauric...
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Maurice Reeder

Maurice "Mo" M Reeder (1933-2013) was an American radiologist who is remembered for his contributions to radiology education in the United States, in particular, the development of the radiology-pathology teaching program at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Early life Maurice Merrick R...
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Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
Article

Pathological gas

Some medical conditions are characterized by the presence of pathological gas i.e. gas/air found in a space, tissue, or organ, where it would not normally be expected to be. Terminology prefix 'pneumo' is common, especially when it refers to gas within a body space/cavity e.g. pneumothorax em...
Article

Nerve root enhancement

Nerve root enhancement is a phenomenon described on post-contrast MRI scans that can be observed in a number of situations. Common causes post-operative nerve root enhancement 6 arachnoiditis leptomeningeal metastases disseminated spinal leptomeningeal metastases neurolymphomatosis HIV va...
Article

Pediatric nasal cavity masses

Pediatric nasal cavity masses can occur within the nose or the nasopharynx. These masses are often found incidentally on imaging but can be readily apparent clinically. Clinical presentation The clinical features of these lesions tend to mimic upper respiratory processes and may result in dela...
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Main differentials in musculoskeletal imaging

Here is a list of some of the most useful differential diagnoses in musculoskeletal imaging. By process lucent/lytic bone lesions (FEGNOMASHIC) multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions benign lytic bone lesions in patients under 30 years old diffuse bony sclerosis permeative process in bone pse...
Article

Dense base of the skull (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a dense base of the skull includes: Fibrous dysplasia Paget's disease Camurati-Engelmann disease Van Buchem disease osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis meningioma sclerosteosis  
Article

Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart diseases, or cardiac valvulopathies, describe any acquired or congenital disease affecting one or more of the four cardiac valves. This is a general index article that classifies cardiac valvulopathies depending on which valve(s) is affected 1. See individual articles for in-dept...
Article

Intralobular septal thickening

Intralobular septal thickening is a form of interstitial thickening and should be distinguished from interlobular septal thickening. It is often seen as fine linear or reticular thickening. It has been described with several conditions of variable etiology which include sarcoidosis 2 asbestos...
Article

Bowel wall thickening

Bowel wall thickening is a useful finding on imaging studies and has a number of different causes. Pathology The reason for bowel wall thickening depends on the underlying etiology but includes submucosal edema, hemorrhage, and neoplastic infiltration. Radiographic features In describing bow...
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Hypoglobus

Hypoglobus refers to the inferior displacement of the globe in the orbit. It may or may not be associated with enophthalmos. Causes include: fracture of the orbital floor (most common) silent sinus syndrome orbital masses orbital foreign bodies thyroid ophthalmopathy
Article

Pseudobladder

Pseudobladder refers to a pelvic cystic mass that simulates the urinary bladder. The location of the lesion should allow differentiation from the bladder but if doubt exists and clinical necessity arises, a delayed phase CT/MRI with excreted contrast or Foley catheter-administered retrograde co...
Article

Synovial enhancement

Synovial enhancement is an imaging feature typically observed on MRI imaging. It can occur in various forms and can be focal or diffuse. Pathology inflammatory synovitis transient synovitis of the hip infective synovitis inflammatory arthritides septic arthritis tuberculous septic arthri...
Article

Small lung volume (differential diagnosis)

The following differential diagnoses can be considered when small lung volumes are seen: pulmonary fibrosis prior surgery, e.g. lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery pleural disease, e.g. pleural thickening skeletal deformities, e.g. kyphosis, scoliosis systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
Article

Pseudohydronephrosis

Pseudohydronephrosis (plural: pseudohydronephroses) refers to normal anatomy or non-significant pathologies that may mimic hydronephrosis. There is usually fluid-density material within a dilated part of the urinary tract, but without other signs of obstruction such as retroperitoneal fat strand...
Article

Calcification of the external ear (differential)

Calcification of the external ear (auricular cartilage) may arise from a number of causes, including: hyperparathyroidism gout and pseudogout relapsing polychondritis frostbite trauma ochronosis sarcoidosis diabetes mellitus adrenal insufficiency osteoprotegerin (OPG)-deficiency juveni...
Article

Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to a variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumor invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Thrun...
Article

Pulmonary calcification

Pulmonary calcification has many causes and varying morphology: calcific pulmonary nodules or masses micronodules ​healed varicella pneumonia occupational disease/pneumoconioses silicosis coal worker's pneumoconiosis stannosis baritosis pulmonary hemosiderosis mitral stenosis pulmonar...

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