Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

127 results found
Article

Symmetrical cerebral restricted diffusion

Symmetrical cerebral restricted diffusion is seen in a broad range of pathologies. The differential depends on the location of the lesions. Symmetrical central tegmental tract lesions central tegmental tract T2 hyperintensity  symmetrical hyperintensities of the extrapyramidal tract connectin...
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Symmetrical cerebral T2 hyperintensities

Symmetrical cerebral T2/FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in a broad range of pathologies. The differential depends essentially on the location of the lesions. Symmetrical corticospinal tract lesions amyotrophic lateral sclerosis symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities along the corticospinal tra...
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Cerebellar restricted diffusion

Cerebellar restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the cerebellum on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease cerebellar arterial infarction  1 AICA infarction PICA infarction superior cerebellar arterial infarct ce...
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Optic nerve calcification

Optic nerve calcification is a rare radiological finding, with only a short differential diagnosis, many of which have only been described in isolated case reports 1-4. Differential diagnosis optic nerve meningioma optic nerve head drusen idiopathic dural optic nerve sheath calcification ca...
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Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember differentials causing diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI. Bone marrow infiltration is best evaluated on T1 sequences and may be focal or diffuse. Focal infiltration is seen in metastases and lymphoma. The diffuse pattern is seen more commonly in multiple myeloma, mast...
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Bilateral temporal lobe T2 hyperintensity

Bilateral temporal lobe T2 hyperintensity refers to hyperintense signal involving the temporal lobes on T2 weighted and FLAIR imaging. It is a common finding on brain MRI and a wide range of differentials should be considered 1. Causes include: neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementi...
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Cerebral cortical calcification

Cerebral cortical calcification or gyral calcification refers to curvilinear calcifications involving the cerebral cortex. Causes include: vascular ischemic stroke sequelae arteriovenous malformation TORCH infection congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis congenital cytomegalovirus infection p...
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Cerebral cortical T1 hyperintensity

Cerebral cortical T1 hyperintensity or gyriform T1 hyperintensity refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on T1-weighted images on brain MRI. Causes include: accumulation of denatured proteins and/or lipid-laden macrophages cortical laminar necrosis 2 accumula...
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Cerebral cortical T2 hyperintensity

Cerebral cortical T2 hyperintensity or gyriform T2 hyperintensity refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on T2 weighted and FLAIR imaging. The causes include: developmental anomalies focal cortical dysplasia neoplastic glioblastoma1 vascular thrombo-occlusi...
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Cerebral cortical restricted diffusion

Cerebral cortical restricted diffusion or gyriform restricted diffusion refers to curvilinear hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. Causes include: Vascular thrombo-occlusive disease (most common) 1 ischemic stroke cort...
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Fat containing brain lesions

Intracranial fat is uncommon and a wide range of differentials should be considered. Neoplastic intracranial dermoid cyst intracranial teratoma intracranial lipoma pericallosal lipoma quadrigeminal cistern lipoma suprasellar cistern lipoma cerebellopontine angle lipoma choroid plexus li...
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Isolated diffuse ground-glass opacification

Isolated diffuse ground-glass opacification/opacity (GGO) has a relatively well-defined differential diagnosis although this remains broad and clinical correlation, like many respiratory diseases, is key to diagnosis.  Differential diagnosis Miller et al. have described the following different...
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Cavernous sinus gas

Cavernous sinus gas locules can be seen in several settings. iatrogenic pneumocephalus secondary to gas embolism (especially venous gas embolism) from IV access (can be a relatively common finding in the absence of direct trauma and does not usually require treatment). traumatic pneumocephalus...
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Gyral enhancement

Gyral enhancement, also known as gyriform, cortical, or grey matter enhancement, is a pattern of contrast enhancement in the superficial brain parenchyma that conforms to the serpentine morphology of the cerebral gyri. It should be distinguished from leptomeningeal enhancement, which is also ser...
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Epiphora

Epiphora (plural: epiphoras) represents excessive tearing of the eye and is a common clinical presentation to ophthalmological practice. It is most frequently due to an obstruction of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. Less commonly, overproduction of tears may be responsible.  Epidemiology ...
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Nerve root enhancement

Nerve root enhancement is a phenomenon described on post-contrast MRI scans that can be observed in a number of situations. Common causes post-operative nerve root enhancement 6 arachnoiditis leptomeningeal metastases disseminated spinal leptomeningeal metastases neurolymphomatosis HIV va...
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Elevated prolactin (differential)

Elevated prolactin can be due to a number of causes, including elevated production/secretion as well as reduced inhibition.  Prolactin is controlled by numerous homeostatic mechanisms, with tonic secretion of prolactin inhibitory hormone (dopamine) by the hypothalamus having a dominant effect 1...
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Congenital calvarial defects

Congenital calvarial defects are a group of disorders characterized by congenital calvarial bone defects that vary in severity. Radiographic features CT with 3D shaded surface reformats is the best imaging tool as it demonstrates calvarial defects and bone margins: parietal foramina parietal...
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Focal calvarial thinning

Focal calvarial thinning can result from a number of causes. They include: bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (normal variant) most common arachnoid cyst mega cisterna magna peripherally located tumors (e.g. oligodendroglioma) See also calvarial thinning calvarial thickening
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
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Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH) are non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages that occur within the surface sulci of the brain (cf. basal cisternal distribution of aneurysmal SAH). Pathology There are various causes of convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage, some of which include: dural venou...
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Hyperattenuating cerebral metastases

Hyperattenuating cerebral metastases on CT can be due to hemorrhage, calcium, or highly cellular tumors. Differential diagnosis There is overlap between the entities, with some cerebral metastases appearing in more than one list 1-6:  hemorrhagic cerebral metastases (mnemonic) malignant mela...
Article

Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Etiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomegal...
Article

Ventriculomegaly

Ventriculomegaly is defined as enlargement of the ventricles. Simply, there are two causes: hydrocephalus communicating non-communicating parenchymal atrophy Refer to the article on hydrocephalus vs atrophy for more details on how to differentiate both entities. 
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Torticollis

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a clinical finding of head tilt with or without rotational spinal malalignment. It is not a diagnosis in itself and there are a wide range of underlying conditions. It is most common in the pediatric age group.  Pathology Torticollis can be acute (<1 wee...
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Medical devices in the head and neck

Medical devices in the head and neck are regularly seen by radiologists on plain film, CT and MRI. They include devices which pass through the neck into the chest and stomach or ascend to/into the head. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) ...
Article

Extraconal orbital lesions

Extraconal orbital lesions include lesions which arise from structures within the extraconal orbital space and those extending from adjacent structures into the orbits. Differential diagnosis Intraorbital lesions dermoid cyst: most common lesion in pediatrics  lacrimial gland lesions dacryo...
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Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is the morphological presentation of brain parenchymal volume loss that is frequently seen on cross-sectional imaging. Rather than being a primary diagnosis, it is the common endpoint for a range of disease processes that affect the central nervous system. Though often no identi...
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Parkinson-plus syndrome

Parkinson-plus syndromes are a loose group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by features of Parkinson disease but with other neurological symptoms/signs. They have a poor response to levodopa, and mostly have fairly characteristic neuroimaging features.  Conditions included ...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
Article

Extra-axial masses

Extra-axial masses of the intracranial compartment have a wide range of differentials, ranging from benign developmental cysts to malignant tumors.  Differential diagnosis neoplasms chordoma choroid plexus papilloma/carcinoma cranial nerve schwannoma meninges meningioma solitary fibrous ...
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Communicating hydrocephalus

Communicating hydrocephalus is a type of hydrocephalus where CSF is able to leave the ventricular system.  Terminology Communicating hydrocephalus is commonly used as the opposite of obstructive hydrocephalus which leads to much unnecessary confusion, as most causes of communicating hydrocepha...
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Tonsillar herniation

Tonsillar herniation is a type of brain herniation characterized by the inferior descent of the cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum >3 mm 5. Clinically, the presence of tonsillar herniation is often called coning. The terminology of caudally displaced tonsils is discussed in the article...
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Midline shift

One of the most important indicators of increased intracranial pressure due to mass effect is midline shift. Pathology Any intra-axial or extra-axial lesion (tumor, hemorrhage, abscess, etc.) has the potential to exert mass effect on the brain parenchyma and cause lateral shift of the midline ...
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Meningeal enhancement

Meningeal enhancement is a generic term related to the enhancement of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord. Due the anatomical features, this enhancement can be divided in two subtypes: leptomeningeal enhancement (pial or pial-arachnoid enhancement) dural (pachymeningeal) enhan...
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Complications of cranial radiotherapy

Complications of cranial radiation therapy are fairly common, particularly in long-term survivors, and especially in pediatric patients. Cranial radiotherapy is used for a variety of brain tumors, either in isolation or in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. Complications from irradiation...
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Intracranial metastases

Intracranial metastases from non-CNS primary neoplasms are becoming more common due to significant advances in cancer treatment over the last few decades. Increasing numbers of patients live longer and present with metastasis in locations considered unusual previously: brain (parenchymal) metas...
Article

Pituitary region masses (most common)

The five most common masses in the pituitary region are: pituitary macroadenoma meningioma aneurysm craniopharyngioma suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma Craniopharyngioma and suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma are common in children, and pituitary macroadenoma, meningioma, aneurysm are mostl...
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Patterns of neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury

Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injuries can manifest in different patterns of involvement depending on the severity and timing of the insult. When considering the perinatal maturation process of the brain and the severity of an insult, it is possible to understand the various manifestations. T...
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Multiple cranial nerve thickening and enhancement

The most common causes of multiple cranial nerve thickening and enhancement include: metastasis (most common) neurofibromatosis type II lymphoma and leukemia multiple sclerosis chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy Lyme disease See also cranial nerve enhancement: for comple...
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Chronic encephalitides

There are several viral and prion infections which can result in a chronic encephalitis with slow progression into brain atrophy. These have a very poor prognosis with no effective treatment. Some of these include: progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
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Fetal ventriculomegaly (differential)

Fetal ventriculomegaly (ventricle width >10 mm) is an important finding in itself and it is also associated with other central nervous system abnormalities. For more information, see the main article fetal ventriculomegaly. Differential diagnosis Fetal ventriculomegaly can be thought of in ter...
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Viral encephalitides

Viral encephalitides are the result of brain parenchymal infection by a number of different viruses, many of which have similar presentations and imaging features. Specific diagnosis often requires PCR.  For viral infection of the meninges, please refer to the general article on viral meningiti...
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Transtentorial herniation

Transtentorial herniation is a type of cerebral herniation broadly divided into two major types based on the direction of herniation: downwards due to supratentorial mass effect and upward due to infratentorial mass effect. Downward transtentorial herniation Downward herniation occurs when the...
Article

Suprasellar cystic lesions

The differential for suprasellar cystic lesions is large and predominantly includes developmental and neoplastic conditions. Differential diagnosis Developmental arachnoid cyst craniopharyngioma Rathke cleft cyst dermoid cyst epidermoid cyst ependymal cyst enlarged perivascular spaces ...
Article

Dural masses

Dural masses can be the result of a number of different tumors and conditions, although meningiomas are by far the most common. The differential of a dural mass includes: meningioma solitary fibrous tumor of the dura (hemangiopericytoma) primary dural lymphoma Rosai-Dorfman disease primary ...
Article

Pulsatile exophthalmos

Pulsatile exophthalmos, a.k.a. pulsatile proptosis, is a clinical symptom characterized by protrusion - i.e. exophthalmos (proptosis) - and pulsation of the eyeball that can occur due to various causes: caroticocavernous fistulas neurofibromatosis type 1 (with sphenoid wing dysplasia) 2 arter...
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Dural arteriovenous shunts

Dural arteriovenous shunts (DAVS) are rare congenital arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs). On the basis of clinical and anatomical features DAVS have three different types: dural sinus malformations (DSMs) infantile or juvenile DAVS (IDAVS) adult DAVS (ADAVS)
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Intracranial tumors with calcification

A variety of intracranial tumors exhibit different forms of calcification. Some lesions commonly show calcification while in some tumors, calcification is seen only in few number of cases. In this article these tumors are classified on the basis of frequency of calcification. Commonly calcified...
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Enlarged sella turcica (differential)

Enlargement of sella turcica can be seen in situations including the following: empty sella syndrome slight globular enlargement of the sella with no erosion, destruction or posterior displacement of dorsum sellae intracranial hypertension enlargement with erosion of anterior cortex of dorsu...
Article

Temporal bone destructive lesions (differential)

Destructive lesions of the temporal bone (petrous pyramid, middle ear and antrum) have a relatively broad differential including 1: lesions affecting petrous pyramid vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) meningioma glioma neuroma of trigeminal and facial nerve chordoma glomus jugulare ...
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Cerebral restricted diffusion

The following intracranial lesions may show a high signal on DWI images, with a corresponding low signal on ADC images. lesions with intense high signal acute ischemia meningiomas abscess empyema cytotoxic cerebral edema chordoma intracranial epidermoid cyst Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 6 ...
Article

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL), also known as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), represent extensive involvement of the spinal cord, with abnormal T2 signal traversing at least three vertebral body segments in length. Differential diagnosis They are typi...
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Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs)

Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) represent a collection of disparate conditions that can cause signal change in the corpus callosum, usually involving the splenium.  Terminology The term cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) has been proposed recently 12 as a more ...
Article

Intraventricular metastases

Intraventricular metastases are a very rare finding. A few intracranial tumors and some extracranial tumors metastasize to the ventricles. The most common site of intraventricular metastasis is the trigone of the lateral ventricles due to high vascularity of the choroid plexuses. The next most c...
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Intracranial arterial beading

Intracranial arterial beading represents alternating areas of constriction in the intracranial arteries that gives the appearance of beads strung together. Differential diagnosis The various conditions where this may be seen are: cerebral vasculitis radiation therapy cerebral vasospasm post...
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Calvarial thickening

Calvarial thickening can occur from a number of causes. These include: idiopathic chronic ventricular shunting 1 antiepileptic medication phenytoin 3 osteopetrosis 2 fibrous dysplasia acromegaly anemias (largely associated with massive hematopoiesis) Paget disease hyperparathyroidism ...
Article

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are devices used to shunt cerebrospinal fluid in the treatment of hydrocephalus. As the name suggests, a catheter is placed with its tip in the ventricle. The external portion of the catheter is connected to a valve that regulates the flow of CSF based on a pres...
Article

Holocord presentation

Holocord presentation refers to a process that involves the entire spinal cord from the cervicomedullary junction to the tip of the conus. It does not relate to a specific condition, nor does it distinguish between involvement by cystic expansion, solid tumor, or by a combination of both. It mer...
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Neoplasms of the cauda equina (differential)

The differential diagnosis for masses of the cauda equina region is often considered separately to the remainder of the spinal cord. It is often difficult to determine whether masses in this region are intramedullary or intradural-extramedullary. Most common tumors myxopapillary ependymoma by...
Article

Lytic skull lesion

Lytic skull lesions have a relatively wide differential that can be narrowed, by considering if there are more than one lesion and whether the mandible is involved. Pathology Causes lytic skeletal metastases multiple myeloma epidermoid - scalloped border with a sclerotic rim eosinophilic g...
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Intradural extramedullary spinal tumors

Intradural extramedullary neoplasms are located outside the spinal cord but within the dural sheath.  Epidemiology The majority (70-80%) of spinal canal tumors are intradural extramedullary 1. Clinical presentation Patients present with signs and symptoms of spinal cord or nerve root compres...
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Lesions of the corpus callosum

Lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon and arise from multiple different etiologies. The lesions can be classified according to underlying pathophysiology 4-6. Neoplasm Typically, amongst neoplasms, only aggressive lesions can invade the corpus callosum as it is composed of very dense whi...
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Purely intrasellar pituitary mass

Purely intrasellar pituitary masses have a similar differential as the more generic pituitary region mass gamut, or the mnemonic SATCHMO, although some entities are far more common than others. Differential diagnosis pituitary hyperplasia pituitary microadenoma Rathke cleft cyst intracrania...
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Mostly/purely cystic pituitary region masses

Mostly/purely cystic pituitary region masses have a short differential. Differential diagnosis Rathke cleft cyst arachnoid cyst empty sella craniopharyngioma (adamantinomatous type): 90% have calcification  epidermoid cyst
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Mixed cystic and solid pituitary region mass

A mixed cystic and solid pituitary region mass has a limited differential. Differential diagnosis craniopharyngioma both papillary (more solid) and adamantinomatous (more cystic) macroadenoma cystic change / necrosis / previous hemorrhage Most other solid and enhancing pituitary region mas...
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Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid pituitary lesions with enhancement are by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. Differential diagnosis macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the or...
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Pituitary region mass with intrinsic high T1 signal

Pituitary region masses with intrinsic high T1 signal, also referred to as suprasellar hotspots, are relatively frequently encountered, and the presence of high T1 signal narrows the differential somewhat.  Differential diagnosis The differential can be divided by the substance causing the T1 ...
Article

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognized, just like medical devices of the chest. We often ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal devices tube...
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Demyelinating disorders

Demyelinating disorders are a subgroup of white matter disorders characterized by the destruction or damage of normally myelinated structures. These disorders may be inflammatory, infective, ischemic or toxic in origin and include 1-7: autoimmune demyelination multiple sclerosis (MS) Marburg ...
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Hypomyelinating disorders

Hypomyelinating disorders are a heterogeneous subset of white matter disorders characterized by abnormally low amounts of myelination. In distinction to other myelin disorders, hypomyelination is a permanent deficiency in myelin deposition rather than myelin destruction (i.e. demyelination) or ...
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Transalar herniation

Transalar (transsphenoidal) herniation describes herniation of brain matter in and around the middle cranial fossa across the greater sphenoid wing and can be ascending or descending. Compression of structures against the sphenoid bone results in symptoms. Pathology Transalar herniation is not...
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Fetal intracranial hemorrhage

Fetal intracranial hemorrhage may occur either within the cerebral ventricles, subdural space or infratentorial fossa. Pathology Hemorrhages can occur in a number of situations: mechanical trauma, e.g. maternal abdominal blunt or birth trauma severe fetal hypoxia background fetal thrombocyt...
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Fetal brain tumors

Fetal brain tumors are uncommon and tends to have very different pathological spectrum than that observed in adults; in order of decreasing frequency: fetal intracranial teratoma: most common tumor by far astrocytoma/glioblastoma: next most common adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma primitive...
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Fetal intracranial calcification

Fetal intracranial calcification refers to intracranial calcification detected in utero. This can arise from a number of pathologies which include: in utero infections fetal toxoplasmosis infection: calcification tends to be randomly distributed fetal cytomegalovirus infection1: calcificatio...
Article

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions can arise from a number of pathologies, including: Non-tumourous fetal arachnoid cyst  fetal choroid plexus cyst fetal connatal cyst fetal porencephalic cyst fetal interhemispheric cyst fetal subependymal cyst dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly Blake pouc...
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Spinal cord compression

Spinal cord compression (SCC) is a surgical emergency, usually requiring prompt surgical decompression to prevent permanent neurological impairment. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed cauda equina syndrome. Pathology Etiology There are numerous causes of...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastasis is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Article

Coup-contrecoup injury (brain)

A coup-contrecoup injury is a term applied to head injuries and most often cerebral contusions and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. It refers to the common pattern of injury whereby damage is located both at the site of impact (often less marked) and on the opposite side of the head to the poi...
Article

Subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity

There are a wide range of causes for subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity, both pathological and artifactual.  Differential diagnosis Pathological causes subarachnoid hemorrhage meningitis leptomeningeal carcinomatosis FLAIR vascular hyperintensities in acute stroke 1,4,8 moyamoya disease m...
Article

Basal ganglia and thalamus signal abnormalities

Basal ganglia and thalamus signal abnormalities occur in a wide variety of conditions. Ischemia/hypoxia, metabolic disorders and toxins, particularly those that affect the respiratory chain, have a predilection for affecting the basal ganglia as they are highly metabolically active.  They can b...
Article

Bilateral middle cerebellar peduncle lesions

Involvement of both middle cerebellar peduncles is uncommon, but has a relatively long list of differential diagnoses, including 1,2: neurodegenerative diseases multiple systemic atrophy (MSA) olivopontocerebellar atrophy Shy-Drager syndrome spinocerebellar atrophy fragile X-associated tr...
Article

Cavernous sinus mass

A cavernous sinus mass has a wide differential, including:  meningioma orbital apical inflammation with cavernous sinus involvement (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) infection  schwannoma  any of the cranial nerves traversing the cavernous sinus: III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI trigeminal schwannoma is...
Article

Intracranial cystic lesions in the perinatal period

Intracranial cystic lesions in the perinatal period can carry a relatively wide differential which includes: Supratentorial cystic lesions cysts arachnoid cyst choroid plexus cyst connatal cyst holoprosencephaly multicystic encephalomalacia periventricular leukomalacia porencephalic cys...
Article

Cystic spinal cord lesions

Cystic spinal lesions can result from a number of disease entities: Primary Chiari malformation Dandy walker malformation diastematomyelia spinal dysraphism certain skeletal dysplasias 2 achondroplasia tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I ependymal cyst 4 Acquired due to a tumor a...
Article

Congenital syndromes associated with enlarged ventricles

Congenital ventriculomegaly can have a large number of syndromic associations. Common acrocephalosyndactylies Apert syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome acrocephalopolysyndactylies Crouzon syndrome  achondroplasia fetal alcohol syndrome lissencephaly osteopetrosis Sotos syndrome  X-linked hyd...
Article

J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
Article

HIV/AIDS (CNS manifestations)

The CNS manifestations of HIV/AIDS (neuroAIDS) occur secondary to a wide range of neurodegenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic processes.  Epidemiology Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996, there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CNS manifestations...
Article

Moyamoya syndrome

Moyamoya syndrome, also termed the moyamoya pattern or phenomenon, is due to numerous conditions that can cause arterial occlusion of the circle of Willis, with resultant collaterals, and appearances reminiscent of moyamoya disease. These conditions include 1-4 : vessel wall abnormalities athe...
Article

Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family

Although sporadic viral encephalitis is most commonly due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) the extended herpesvirus family consists of many other viruses many of which can also infect the central nervous system. Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family include 1:   herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
Article

Petrous apex lesions (differential)

There is a wide differential diagnosis of petrous apex lesions: pseudolesions asymmetrical marrow/asymmetrical pneumatization non-expansile fat signal intensity on all sequences simple effusion petrous apex cephalocele 4 CSF signal intensity on all sequences petrous apicitis congenital ...
Article

Dural enhancement

Pachymeningeal enhancement, also known as dura-arachnoid enhancement 4, refers to a dural and outer layer of arachnoid pattern of enhancement seen following contrast administration and may occur in the conditions listed below: infection intracranial tumor metastases (meningeal carcinomatosis-...
Article

Masses arising from the foramen of Monro (differential)

The differential diagnosis of masses arising from the foramen of Monro can be approached depending on the age of the patient. Pediatric choroid plexus papilloma adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma germinoma glioma Langerhans cell histiocytosis neurofibromatosis pilocytic astrocytoma sube...

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