Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

159 results found
Article

Benign vs malignant pulmonary nodule

Differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules is of great importance as it determines the further course of management of the patient. Benign pulmonary nodule size: the smaller the size the more likely to be benign ~80% of benign nodules are <2 cm in size. margin: smooth, regular; ...
Article

Thymic calcification

Thymic calcifications are rare findings usually associated with thymoma but are also seen in other pathologies. Neoplastic thymoma - more frequent in invasive thymoma 1 thymic carcinoma multilocular thymic cyst 2 calcified metastasis Non-neoplastic anterior mediastinal a...
Article

Bilateral hypertranslucent hemithoraces

Bilateral hypertranslucent hemithoraces is the presence of decreased density of the hemithoraces bilaterally on a plain chest radiograph. This hypertranslucency, a.k.a. hyperlucency, may be focal or diffuse 1.  Also see unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax.  Focal pulmonary bullae localize...
Article

Apical chest mass

Apical chest masses are often important and may be missed, especially when examined with a plain chest radiograph. It is always recommended to perform a targeted assessment of the apices of the lungs during a chest x-ray; they are one of the classic review areas. Pathology Etiology Commonly a...
Article

Inferior vena caval contrast reflux

Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates. Conditions associate...
Article

Bilateral pleural effusion

Bilateral pleural effusions can be common in general radiology practice. They may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. They can occur from several varied etiologies although congestive heart failure (CHF), renal or liver failure are generally considered common 1.   Recognized list of causes are many...
Article

Hemithoracic volume loss (differential)

Hemithoracic volume loss can occur from a number of situations. These include: Congenital  pulmonary hypoplasia (unilateral) isolated unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis skeletal deformities - e.g. kyphosis,  Acquired Infection in childhood  Swyer-James syndrome Other infective/inflamma...
Article

Giant cell carcinoma of the lung

Giant cell carcinomas of the lung are a rare type of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) classified under sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lungs. Epidemiology They represent less than 0.5% of all NSCLC 2. There is a recognized association with smoking 1.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are n...
Article

Bronchial stenosis

Bronchial stenosis, or bronchial strictures, are descriptive terms to denote regions of focal narrowing involving the bronchi. They can arise from a wide variety of etiologies. Pathology Etiology It can arise from a large range of etiological factors, which include: tracheobronchial malignan...
Article

Traversal of lung fissures

Only a small number of pulmonary diseases are known to directly traverse the lung fissures such that the lung pathology extends from one lobe via the interlobar fissure into an adjacent lobe 1. The finding is most commonly due to primary malignancy, however, some infections are also known to do ...
Article

Esophageal wall thickening

Esophageal wall thickening can be observed in a number of situations and can be either focal or diffuse. It may be physiological, and can also be due to benign or malignant disorders. Pathology Causes diffuse diffuse esophageal spasm forms of esophagitis diffuse esophageal intramural hemat...
Article

Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation

Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation refers to a region of lung parenchyma with air space opacification that has higher attenuation on CT than muscle or than expected with typical causes of consolidation such as pneumonia (fluid attenuation) or cancer (soft tissue attenuation). The differen...
Article

Diffuse airway narrowing

Diffuse airway narrowing can occur from a number of pathologies; these include: relapsing polychondritis ulcerative colitis amyloidosis: tracheobronchial sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangiitis tracheopathia osteochondroplastica various infections including tracheobronchial papillom...
Article

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a classification of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is not due to left ventricular dysfunction. Causes include: fluid overload pulmonary edema with acute asthma post-obstructive pulmonary edema/postintubation pulmonary edema/negative pressure ...
Article

Reticulonodular interstitial pattern

A reticulonodular interstitial pattern is an imaging descriptive term that can be used in thoracic radiographs or CT scans when are there is an overlap of reticular shadows with nodular shadows. This may be used to describe a regional pattern or a diffuse pattern throughout the lungs. Differen...
Article

Linear atelectasis

Linear atelectasis (plural: atelectases), and also known as discoid, plate or band atelectasis, refers to a focal area of subsegmental atelectasis that has a linear shape. Linear atelectasis may appear to be horizontal, oblique or perpendicular and is very common. It usually occurs as a conseque...
Article

Compressive atelectasis

Compressive atelectasis refers to a form of lung atelectasis due to compression by a space-occupying process. Some authors describe it as a subtype of passive (relaxation) atelectasis where the reduction in lung volume is greater than its normal relaxed state 1. Whereas others describe it as th...
Article

Lobar consolidation

Lobar consolidation is the term used to describe consolidation in one of the lobes of the lung. It infers an alveolar spread of disease and is most commonly due to pneumonia. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inf...
Article

Right upper lobe consolidation

Right upper lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right upper lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
Article

Peribronchovascular thickening

Peribronchovascular thickening is a broad imaging descriptive term commonly used to describe thickening of any one or more of the below: peribronchovascular interstitial thickening bronchial wall thickening: can be differentiated from true peribronchovascular thickening on cross-section...
Article

Secondary organizing pneumonia

Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) refers to organizing pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) in which no cause is present.  Pathology Etiology Secondary organizing pneumonia can be attributed to the following causes 1: ...
Article

Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
Article

Intralobular septal thickening

Intralobular septal thickening is a form of interstitial thickening and should be distinguished from interlobular septal thickening. It is often seen as fine linear or reticular thickening. It has been described with several conditions of variable etiology which include sarcoidosis 2 asbestos...
Article

Small lung volume (differential diagnosis)

The following differential diagnoses can be considered when small lung volumes are seen: pulmonary fibrosis prior surgery, e.g. lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery pleural disease, e.g. pleural thickening skeletal deformities, e.g. kyphosis, scoliosis systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
Article

Pulmonary calcification

Pulmonary calcification has many causes and varying morphology: calcific pulmonary nodules or masses micronodules ​healed varicella pneumonia occupational disease/pneumoconioses silicosis coal worker's pneumoconiosis stannosis baritosis pulmonary hemosid...
Article

Mediastinal widening (differential)

The differential diagnoses for mediastinal widening include: traumatic aortic injury vascular anomalies unfolded aorta thoracic aortic aneurysm double SVC aberrant right subclavian artery azygos continuation of the IVC pneumomediastinum lung atelectasis pulmonary masses abutting the m...
Article

Middle mediastinal mass

The differential diagnosis for a middle mediastinal mass includes 1-3: lymphadenopathy aneurysm e.g. aortic, pulmonary artery, bronchial artery congenital cyst pericardial cyst foregut duplication cyst (e.g. esophageal, bronchial) pericardial tumor primary/secondary cardiac tumor neuroge...
Article

Fat containing thoracic lesions

There is a long list of fat containing thoracic lesions. They may involve the mediastinum, lung, pleura or chest wall. Differential diagnosis includes:  intrapulmonary: fat containing pulmonary lesions pulmonary hamartoma endobronchial lipoma intrapulmonary lipoma lipoid pneumonia myeloli...
Article

Megaesophagus

Megaesophagus or diffuse esophageal dilatation can be caused by a variety of conditions.  Pathology Etiology Some of the more common causes are given below 1-3: esophageal dysmotility achalasia Chagas disease scleroderma distal obstruction malignant stricture, e.g. esophageal cancer, ca...
Article

Cirrhosis (pulmonary manifestations)

There are several pulmonary complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS): considered the commonest portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) hepatic hydrothorax (HH) intrathoracic portosystemic collateral vessel formation acute respiratory distress syndr...
Article

Dynamic tracheal collapse

Dynamic tracheal collapse refers to collapse of the trachea during expiration. It is perhaps best assessed on CT in the end expiratory phase. An inspiratory series is also useful for comparative purposes. The term excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to abnormal and exaggerated bulgin...
Article

Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
Article

Resorptive (obstructive) atelectasis

Resorptive or obstructive atelectasis is a form of lung collapse that is due to obstruction of the airways supplying a lung segment or lobe. It is a term used to distinguish atelectasis identified on imaging based on the underlying pathophysiology to guide diagnosis. Clinical presentation The ...
Article

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term where an interstitial pneumonia has a prolonged course. It can arise from a range of etiologies. The term does not usually imply a specific radiographic pattern and includes UIP, NSIP or other patterns. As a general rule, there is litt...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
Article

Pericardial fat pads

Pericardial fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle. They are adipose tissues surrounding the heart composed of the epicardial fat, which lies between the myocardium and visceral pericardium, and paracardial fat, which is adherent and external to the parietal pericardi...
Article

Pleural adhesions

Pleural adhesions usually refers to the formation of fibrotic bands that span the pleural space, between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura.  Pathology They may be local or diffuse. The presence of a pleural adhesion is one of the causes for a pneumothorax not to resolve. Etiology...
Article

Pulmonary arterial calcification

Pulmonary arterial calcification is a phenomenon which is usually seen in the setting of advanced pulmonary hypertension. It can however be uncommonly present in those without pulmonary hypertension. Pathology The general mechanism in the vast majority is thought to be from high end pulmonary ...
Article

Pulmonary fungal disease

Pulmonary fungal disease encompasses a broad spectrum of infections related to fungal sources. They can particularly affect immunocompromised individuals. These include: pulmonary aspergillosis: pulmonary aspergillus infection considered the most important in immunocompromised individuals 5 a...
Article

Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging, mucous plugging, bronchial mucocele or bronchocele formation, refers to airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive. It is a common pathological finding in chest imaging. Pathology Etiology Mucoid impactio...
Article

Calcified pulmonary embolus

Calcification associated with pulmonary emboli is usually associated with chronic pulmonary embolism. Calcification is occasionally related to prior congenital cardiac repairs 1. Differential diagnosis If it is purely high attenuating, consider polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) embolism into the ...
Article

Cicatrisation atelectasis

Cicatrisation atelectasis is a form of lung atelectasis which occurs as a result of scarring or fibrosis that reduces lung expansion. Cicatrisation atelectasis is classic in tuberculosis. The term is closely related to cicatrisation collapse when an entire lobe is collapsed from the same process...
Article

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies, either by its own or in association with other lung pathology. Historically, a size cut-off of 10 mm short-axis diameter was used.  Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some ...
Article

Subpulmonic effusion

Subpulmonic effusions (also known as subpulmonary effusions) are pleural effusions that can be seen only on an erect projection. Rather than layering laterally and blunting of the costophrenic angle, the pleural fluid lies almost exclusively between the lung base and the diaphragm. Radiographic...
Article

Hemoptysis

Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology. Terminology A variety of clinical classifica...
Article

Pure ground glass nodules

Pure ground glass lung nodules (pGGN's) are a subtype of ground glass lung nodules where there is no associated solid component. Pathology Etiology Apart from inflammatory foci they have been shown to represent various pathologies such as 1,3 adenocarcinoma in situ of lung minimally-invasiv...
Article

Coin lesion (lung)

A coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically but not always the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions i...
Article

Bronchial wall thickening

Bronchial wall thickening is an imaging descriptor used to describe abnormal thickening of bronchial walls and can arise from a vast number of pathological entities. It is one of the causes of peribronchial cuffing. The presence of bronchial wall thickening usually (but not always) implies infl...
Article

Elevated diaphragm

Elevated diaphragm refers to the symmetrical elevation of both domes of the diaphragm. Pathology Etiology There is some overlap with causes of an elevated hemidiaphragm.  Technical  supine position poor inspiratory effort Patient factors obesity pregnancy Diaphragmatic pathology paral...
Article

Diffuse pulmonary nodules

Diffuse pulmonary nodules are usually seen as multiple pulmonary nodular opacifications on a HRCT chest scan. They can signify disease processes affecting either the interstitium or the airspace. They can range from a few millimeters to up to 1 cm and when very small and numerous there can be so...
Article

Diffuse pulmonary nodules (differential diagnosis)

A number of differentials must be kept in mind while approaching diffuse or multiple pulmonary nodules. Interpretation is easier if nodules are the only abnormality. Differential diagnosis These differentials can be narrowed down based on several criteria: Based on appearance  miliary nodule...
Article

Granulomatous lung disease

Granulomatous lung disease refers to a broad group of infectious and non-infectious conditions characterized by the formation of granulomas. The spectrum includes: infectious mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection fungal pulmonary coccidioido...
Article

Pulmonary ossification

Pulmonary ossification is a rare finding and is characterized by the presence of mature bone in alveolar or interstitial spaces, either localized or disseminated throughout the lung parenchyma. It can be idiopathic (idiopathic pulmonary ossification) or secondary to chronic lung, cardiac or sys...
Article

Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis (also considered very similar to the term diaphragmatic palsy) can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying etiological factors: unilateral paralysis: asymptomatic in most of the patients as the oth...
Article

Calcifying pulmonary metastases

Calcifying pulmonary metastases are rare. These should not be confused with metastatic pulmonary calcification. Pathology Calcification in metastases can arise through a variety of mechanisms: bone formation in tumors of osteoid origin, calcification and ossification of tumor cartilage, dystro...
Article

Localized pulmonary hemorrhage

Localized pulmonary hemorrhage is a descriptive term for a pulmonary hemorrhage restricted to a particular focal region of the lung. It can range from involving a small focus of hemorrhage to a whole lobe. Pathology Etiology Focal pulmonary hemorrhage can occur from a number of causes: pulmo...
Article

Hemopneumothorax

A hemopneumothorax (plural: hemopneumothoraces) (or, less commonly, haematopneumothorax or pneumohemothorax) is a term given when there is concurrent presence of a hemothorax and pneumothorax. It is a variant of a hydropneumothorax.  Epidemiology Approximately 5% of patients with pneumothorax ...
Article

Hemothorax

A hemothorax (plural: hemothoraces), or rarely hematothorax, literally means blood within the chest, is a term usually used to describe a pleural effusion due to accumulation of blood. If a hemothorax occurs concurrently with a pneumothorax it is then termed a hemopneumothorax.  A tension hemot...
Article

Cavitating pneumonia

Cavitating pneumonia is a complication that can occur with severe necrotizing pneumonia and in some publications, it is used synonymously with the latter term 2.  It is a rare complication in both children and adults. Cavitation associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is separately discussed...
Article

Pleural tumors

There are several tumors that can involve the pleura which can range from being benign to malignant (see malignancies of the pleura). The list includes: primary pleural tumors 5 mesothelial tumors pleural malignant mesothelioma well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma adenomatoid tumor of...
Article

Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary or interstitial fibrosis is a descriptive term given when there is an excess of fibrotic tissue in the lung. It can occur in a wide range of clinical settings and can be precipitated by a multitude of causes. Terminology The term should not be confused with idiopathic pulmonary fibro...
Article

Cystic lung lesions (pediatric)

Cystic lesions in pediatric patients are usually congenital lesions and, as such, can be seen antenatally and following delivery. Pathology Etiology Congenital These congenital lesions are predominantly covered by the overarching diagnosis of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation. This is a ...
Article

Pleural thickening

Pleural thickening is a descriptive term given to describe any form of thickening involving either the parietal or visceral pleura.  It can occur with both benign and malignant pleural disease. According to etiology it may be classified as: benign pleural thickening following recurrent inflam...
Article

Diffuse pleural thickening

Diffuse pleural thickening refers to a morphological type of pleural thickening. It can occur from malignant as well as non-malignant causes, which include: diffuse pleural fibrosis / fibrothorax 6 asbestos-related pleural disease (asbestos related diffuse pleural thickening): typically seen a...
Article

Incomplete border sign (chest)

The incomplete border sign is useful to depict an extrapulmonary mass on chest radiograph. An extrapulmonary mass will often have an inner well-defined border and an ill-defined outer margin 1-3. This can be attributed to the inner margin being tangential to the x-ray beam and having a good inh...
Article

Fatty mediastinal masses (differential)

Fatty mediastinal masses are relatively uncommon, and the differential diagnosis is brief, including 1-4: lipoma liposarcoma thymolipoma benign mature teratoma lipoblastoma extravasation of lipid-rich hyperalimentation fluid 3 fibrofatty replacement of the central portion of mediastinal l...
Article

Non-calcified hyperdense pulmonary nodules

Non-calcified hyperdense pulmonary nodules are predominantly the result of inhalational exposure to substances, although embolization of material may cause dense nodular opacification within the lung. inhalation disease, e.g. pneumoconioses pulmonary baritosis (barium dust) pulmonary siderosi...
Article

Cavitating pulmonary metastases

Cavitating pulmonary metastases refer to pulmonary metastases which then tend to cavitate. The term is similar but may not be identical to cystic pulmonary metastases in which the wall of the former may be thicker. Epidemiology Cavitation is thought to occur in around 4% of lung metastases 2. ...
Article

Perilymphatic lung nodules

Perilymphatic lung nodules follow perilymphatic channels and on imaging are typically subpleural, occur along fissures (perifissural nodules), interlobular septa, and adjacent to the bronchovascular bundles. Differential diagnosis Lung nodules in a perilymphatic distribution can be seen in ass...
Article

Centrilobular lung nodules

Centrilobular lung nodules refer to a HRCT chest imaging descriptor for small 5-10 mm lung nodules which are anatomically located centrally within secondary pulmonary lobules. The term is applied on the basis of location of the nodule and not its morphology, that is they may be well-defined or p...
Article

Cystic pulmonary metastases

Cystic pulmonary metastases are an atypical morphological form of pulmonary metastases where lesions manifest as distinct cystic lesions. It is slightly different from the term cavitating pulmonary metastases in that the lesions are extremely thin walled. Pathology It has been reported with ma...
Article

Unilateral pulmonary edema

Unilateral pulmonary edema represents only 2% of cardiogenic pulmonary edema with predilection for the right upper lobe and is strongly associated with severe mitral regurgitation 1,2. It is hypothesized that the regurgitation jet is directed towards the right superior pulmonary vein thus prefer...
Article

Ascending aorta dilatation

Dilatation of the ascending aorta is a common finding in the elderly but unusual in younger patients. Pathology In adults, an ascending aortic diameter greater than 4 cm is considered to indicate dilatation 4. Aneurysmal dilatation is considered when the ascending aortic diameter reaches or ex...
Article

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a subset of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage when bleeding is diffuse and directly into the alveolar spaces. It can occur in a vast number of clinical situations and can be life-threatening. Pathology Blood tends to fill alveolar spaces at multiple sites. Etio...
Article

Pulmonary hemorrhage

Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rather broad term given to describe any form of bleeding into the lung and can arise from a myriad of causes. In a very traditional sense it is described when the following constellation of clinicoradiological features occurs simultaneously 2 (although this is never an ...
Article

Pulmonary vasculitis

Pulmonary vasculitis refers to vasculitides that affect the lung or pulmonary vessels. If this definition is used, a large group of conditions can fall into this category. The respiratory system may be potentially involved in all systemic vasculitides, although to a variable degree. Pathology ...
Article

Cardiophrenic angle lesions

The cardiophrenic space is usually filled with fat. However, lesions originating above or lower to the diaphragm can present as cardiophrenic angle lesions. The more common lesions encountered include: pericardial fat pad pericardial cyst pericardial fat necrosis Morgagni's hernia lymphade...
Article

Postobstructive pulmonary edema

Postobstructive pulmonary edema is a type of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and is an uncommon but well-described complication of upper airway obstruction. Clinical presentation It occurs in three clinical settings 6: acute airway obstruction chronic upper airway obstruction immediately af...
Article

Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage

Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage (DPH) is a subtype of pulmonary hemorrhage where bleeding into the lung is diffuse (cf. focal pulmonary hemorrhage). If the bleeding is into the alveolar spaces, it can be further subclassified as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Epidemiology Associations pulmon...
Article

Interstitial lung pattern (radiograph)

An interstitial lung pattern is a regular descriptive term used when reporting a plain chest radiograph. It is the result of the age-old attempt to make the distinction between an interstitial and airspace (alveolar) process to narrow the differential diagnosis. A re-read of the timeless work o...
Article

Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CT scans. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes, scissors, lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings, etc. may also be visib...
Article

Pneumatocele

Pneumatoceles are intrapulmonary gas-filled cystic spaces that can have a variety of sizes and appearances. They may contain gas-fluid levels and are usually the result of ventilator-induced lung injury in neonates or post-infectious. They should not be mistaken for a cavitating lung mass.  Epi...
Article

Pulmonary bleb

Pulmonary blebs are small subpleural thin-walled air-containing spaces, not larger than 1 or 2 cm in diameter (with the precise limit varying by source). Their walls are less than 1 mm thick. If they rupture, they allow air to escape into the pleural space resulting in a spontaneous pneumothorax...
Article

Right lower lobe collapse

Right lower lobe (RLL) collapse has distinctive features, and is usually relatively easily identified. The smaller overlying heart shadow obscures less lung compared with left lower lobe collapse.  Findings of lower lobe collapse can be grouped together as they are almost identical on both side...
Article

Right upper lobe collapse

Right upper lobe collapse has distinctive features, and is usually easily identified on frontal chest radiographs; much more so than left upper lobe collapse. For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Chest radiograph Collapse of the right ...
Article

Right middle lobe collapse

Right middle lobe collapse (or simply termed middle lobe collapse) has distinctive features, but can be subtle on frontal chest radiographs.  For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse.   It is important to note that of all the lobes, the right middle lobe is the mo...
Article

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette on a frontal (or PA) chest x-ray can be due to a number of causes 1: cardiomegaly (most common cause by far) pericardial effusion anterior mediastinal mass prominent epicardial fat pad expiratory radiograph AP projection (e.g supine radiographs taken w...
Article

Narrow fetal thorax

A narrow fetal thorax on antenatal ultrasound can be present with a number of anomalies which include: achondrogenesis campomelic dysplasia homozygous achondroplasia Jarcho-Levin syndrome Jeune syndrome - asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia Russell-Silver dwarfism short rib polydactyly syndro...
Article

Calcified pulmonary nodules

Calcified pulmonary nodules are a subset of hyperdense pulmonary nodules and a group of nodules with a relatively narrow differential. Pathology Etiology The most common cause of nodule calcification is granuloma formation, usually in the response to healed infection.   healed infection cal...
Article

Pulmonary mass

A pulmonary mass is any area of pulmonary opacification that measures more than 30 mm, an arbitrary but useful measurement. The commonest cause of a pulmonary mass is primary lung cancer 1-3: bronchogenic carcinoma granuloma: most common non-malignant cause sarcoidosis infections Mycobacter...
Article

Interstitial lung disease

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an umbrella term that encompasses a large number of disorders that are characterized by diffuse cellular infiltrates in a periacinar location. The spectrum of conditions included is broad, ranging from occasional self-limited inflammatory processes to severe de...
Article

Echogenic fetal lung lesions

Echogenic fetal lung lesions on antenatal ultrasound can be detected in a number of situations. They include: Airway obstructions: lung are often enlarged and echogenic bilaterally congenital high airways obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) tracheal atresia congenital tracheal stenosis laryngeal a...
Article

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions carry a relatively broad differential, which includes: retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal muci...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.