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Hepatosplenomegaly is simply the simultaneous presence of a pathologically-enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and spleen (splenomegaly). Pathology Etiology Infection Many infections can produce a mild concurrent enlargement of the liver and spleen. This list is by no means exhaustive. viral EBV...

Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss is associated with replacement of fatty marrow by edema or cellular tissue.  Radiographic features MRI T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Ab...

Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia is a form of anemia where red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be replaced. This may happen either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: ret...

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies, either by its own or in association with other lung pathology. Historically, a size cut-off of 10 mm short-axis diameter was used.  Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some ...

Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also known as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (cf. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splenic t...


Splenomegaly refers to enlargement of the spleen. The upper limit of the normal adult splenic length is traditionally cited at 12 cm, but lengths upwards of 14 cm can be seen in normal, taller males 7. Terminology Massive splenomegaly is variably defined, including when the spleen is 5 standar...

Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also known as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~80%)...

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