Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

172 results found
Article

Finger pathology

Finger pathology is wide and includes all lesions involving the tendons, ligaments, muscles, bone, and articulations of the hand and foot digits. Congenital brachydactyly - short digits brachymetatarsia - short metatarsal arachnodactyly - elongated, thin "spider-like" digits 1 polydactyly (...
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Spinal epidural cystic lesions

Spinal epidural cystic lesions are fluid-filled lesions within the spinal canal but outside the thecal sac. Their clinical significance is as a potential contributor to spinal cord or nerve root impingement. Simple appearing spinal epidural cysts may represent several entities that differ by ori...
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Intraosseous gas

Intraosseous gas, also known as osseous pneumatosis, refers to the accumulation of gas bubbles within the cortical bone, trabecular bone, the bone marrow, or in the medullary cavity. Intraosseous gas is an uncommon finding and differentials include 1,2:  infections emphysematous osteomyelitis...
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Leave alone lesions - maxillodental

Maxillodental leave alone lesions are usually incidental findings that do not require treatment nor follow-up if the patient is asymptomatic. This article includes findings from orthopantomogram, cone-beam CT, and sinus CT studies. Do not touch: benign lesions tooth ankylosis hypercementosi...
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Leave alone lesions - skull base

Leave alone lesions of the skull base refers to incidental findings that do not require treatment nor follow-up. This article includes findings from brain CT, HRCT of the temporal bone, and MRI studies. Do not touch: arrested pneumatization of the skull base - sphenoid benign fatty lesion 1 ...
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Vacuum phenomenon

Vacuum phenomena describe aseptic gas collections (e.g. nitrogen and traces of oxygen and or carbon dioxide) within different specific tissues 1-3. Usually, they are seen within the intervertebral discs, the bones and within different joints, but can also be seen in other usually adjacent locati...
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Sports injuries: snowsports

Snowsport injuries cover a broad range of activities from skiing and snowboarding to recreational play (e.g. tobogganing, tubing). Epidemiology Snowsports are popular with over 70 million people globally participating each year 1. While the injury rate varies depending on location, a rough ave...
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Intra-articular gas

Intra-articular gas or air (pneumarthrosis) can occur from a number of varied pathologies and should be interpreted according to the clinical context. Causes include trauma  compound injury with gas entering from the outer surface can occur with a pneumolipohaemarthrosis surgical intra-arti...
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Coarse trabecular pattern in bone (differentials)

Coarse trabecular bones can result from a number of causes 1,2: Paget disease (bone) osteoporosis osteomalacia rickets hemaglobinopathies, e.g. thalassemia, chronic iron deficiency anemia 3 Gaucher's disease hyperparathyroidism See also coarse trabecular pattern in bone (mnemonic)
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Sports injuries: overhead elbow

Overhead elbow sports injuries are a group of pathologies seen in sports activities with overhead throwing or strokes, e.g. tennis, volleyball, baseball, javelin throwing. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of participants in these sports activities worldwide. Pathology During ...
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Main differentials in musculoskeletal imaging

Here is a list of some of the most useful differential diagnoses in musculoskeletal imaging. By process lucent/lytic bone lesions (FEGNOMASHIC) multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions benign lytic bone lesions in patients under 30 years old diffuse bony sclerosis permeative process in bone pse...
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Dense base of the skull (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a dense base of the skull includes: Fibrous dysplasia Paget's disease Camurati-Engelmann disease Van Buchem disease osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis meningioma sclerosteosis  
Article

Synovial enhancement

Synovial enhancement is an imaging feature typically observed on MRI imaging. It can occur in various forms and can be focal or diffuse. Pathology inflammatory synovitis transient synovitis of the hip infective synovitis inflammatory arthritides septic arthritis tuberculous septic arthri...
Article

Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss is associated with replacement of fatty marrow by edema or cellular tissue.  Radiographic features MRI T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Ab...
Article

Cystic fibrosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

The musculoskeletal manifestations of cystic fibrosis are uncommon compared to the well known respiratory manifestations.  For general discussion of cystic fibrosis, and a discussion of its other manifestations, please refer to: cystic fibrosis (parent article) pulmonary manifestations of cys...
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
Article

Patterns of bone bruise in knee injury

The pattern of bone bruise in knee injuries (a.k.a. bone contusion) can give clues for the mechanism and associated injuries.  Radiographic features Five classic bone contusion patterns have been described 1-4: pivot-shift injury valgus stress to flexed and externally rotated knee ...
Article

Tibiotalar slant

Tibiotalar slant is the superolateral inclination of the tibial plafond, and results in an ankle valgus deformity. There are a number of causes 1: trauma, i.e. distal tibial fractures osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis haemophilic arthropathy sickle cell dis...
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Mandibular periostitis

There are many causes for mandibular periostitis: Langerhans cell histiocytosis malignancy (both primary and metastatic) necrosis, e.g. radiation osteonecrosis osteomyelitis pyogenic Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis actinomycosis (uncommon) syphilis (uncommon) tuberculosis (uncommon) r...
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Generalized periosteal reaction

The list of causes of a generalized periosteal reaction overlaps that of symmetrical periosteal reaction, and includes 1,2: vascular stasis (common) congenital syphilis fluorosis Gaucher disease hypertrophic osteoarthropathy pachydermoperiostosis hypervitaminosis A infantile cortical hyp...
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Symmetrical periosteal reaction

There are a large number of causes for a symmetrical periosteal reaction 1,2: age < 6 months physiologic periostitis, most common cause before 6 months old Caffey disease prostaglandin-related age > 6 months chronic venous insufficiency hypertrophic osteoarthropathy juvenile idiopathic a...
Article

Patellar tumors

Patellar tumors are extremely rare. They can be either benign or malignant primary bone tumors, or metastases.  Epidemiology Patellar tumors represent just 0.1% of all primary bone tumors 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with anterior knee pain and/or a palpable mass 1,3. Path...
Article

Juvenile osteoporosis

Juvenile osteoporosis refers to osteoporosis occurring in children. Pathology Etiology It can arise from a number of causes 1-4: primary conditions osteogenesis imperfecta Bruck syndrome osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Marfan syndrome homocystinuria secondary...
Article

Torticollis

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a clinical finding of head tilt with or without rotational spinal malalignment. It is not a diagnosis in itself and there are a wide range of underlying conditions. It is most common in the pediatric age group.  Pathology Torticollis can be acute (<1 wee...
Article

Terminal tuft mass

There is only a short list of terminal tuft masses, which can arise from the adjacent soft tissues and erode the terminal tuft as well as arising from the terminal tuft itself: epidermal inclusion cyst: history of penetrating trauma tenosynovial giant cell tumor: occur laterally subungual glo...
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High bone mineral density

A high bone mineral density is one where the bone mineral density (BMD) is usually greater than two standard deviations above what is expected for age. This can sometimes be seen on routine DEXA scan assessment. Some authors advocate a definition of a high BMD where the Z-score is greater than +...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
Article

Loss of intervertebral disc space (differential)

Loss of intervertebral disc space can be due to a variety of causes: degenerative disc disease of the spine: most common cause trauma discitis neuropathic spondyloarthropathy dialysis related spondyloarthropathy ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis crystal deposition diseases sarcoidosis ...
Article

Anterior knee pain

Anterior knee pain is common with a variety of causes which can be divided anatomically using a layered approach1 from superficial to deep: Superficial soft tissues prepatellar bursitis Morel-Lavallée lesion infrapatellar bursitis  Extensor mechanism quadriceps tendinosis / partial tear q...
Article

Periosteal new bone formation in children

Periosteal reaction in the pediatric population, also known as periostitis in children, is relatively common occurrence and can result from many causes. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for multiple bone periostitis include but not limited to the following: physiological peri...
Article

Talar dislocation

There are many types of talar dislocation given its multiple articulations: tibiotalar dislocation subtalar dislocation total talar dislocation talonavicular dislocation ​Chopart fracture-dislocation
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Talar fractures

Talar fractures are an uncommon injury, accounting for <5% of all foot fractures. Recognition of the unique talar anatomy is important for correct diagnosis. Pathology Location talar head fractures talar neck fractures talar body fractures talar dome osteochondral fracture ...
Article

Tumors that metastasize to bone (mnemonic)

Tumors that metastasize to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "PBKTL", rendered as "lead kettle", as "Pb" is the standard abbreviation for the chemical element, lead. PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most commo...
Article

Cyst-like lesions around the knee

There is broad differential for cyst-like lesions around the knee.  Differential diagnosis Cysts synovial cyst popliteal synovial cyst - Baker cyst ganglion cyst intra-articular ganglion cyst ACL ganglion cyst PCL ganglion cyst Hoffa fat pad ganglion cyst extra-articular ganglion cyst ...
Article

Gracile bones

Gracile bones refer to changes in the skeleton in which the bones are more slender than usual (over-tubulated) and occasionally deformed in other ways such as being abnormally curved. This may occur in a number of disorders and can occur with or without fractures. Pathology Etiology neurofibr...
Article

Pencil-in-cup deformity

Pencil-in-cup deformity is the description given to one of the appearances on plain radiographs classically associated with psoriatic arthritis; however, it is not pathognomonic. Radiographic features The appearance results from periarticular erosions and bone resorption giving the appearance ...
Article

Supernumerary ribs

Supernumerary ribs occur most commonly as a cervical rib arising from C7 or a lumbar rib arising from L1. In extremely rare situations, there can be sacral, coccygeal, intrathoracic, or aberrant lumbar ribs 3. Rarely supernumerary ribs (cervical and lumbar ribs aside) have been found as 'normal'...
Article

≤11 ribs (differential)

≤11 ribs is associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and skeletal dysplasias, including: Down syndrome (trisomy 21) campomelic dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome) short rib polydactyly syndromes trisomy 18 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion...
Article

Myonecrosis

Myonecrosis is a myopathy involving infarction of skeletal muscle and can have the appearances of an intramuscular mass.  Pathology Etiology Myonecrosis represents an infarction of the skeletal muscles. It has a variety of causes 1-3: post-traumatic (see: calcific myonecrosis) - most common ...
Article

Erosion of superior aspects of ribs (differential)

Differential diagnosis of erosion of the superior aspects of the ribs include:  hyperparathyroidism rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma neurofibromatosis poliomyelitis progeria
Article

Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Pathology The craniovertebral junction...
Article

Valgus vs varus

The terms valgus and varus refer to angulation (or bowing) within the shaft of a bone or at a joint in the coronal plane. It is determined by the distal part being more medial or lateral than it should be. Whenever the distal part is more lateral, it is called valgus. Whenever the distal part i...
Article

Floating meniscus

Floating meniscus (also known as meniscal avulsion) occurs in acute traumatic settings when the meniscotibial coronary ligaments get disrupted leading to avulsion of the meniscus from the tibial plateau. Radiographic features MRI Displacement of the meniscus for 5 mm or more from the tibial p...
Article

Metaphyseal blanch sign

The metaphyseal blanch sign (or metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel) is one of the signs seen on AP views of the adolescent hip indicating posterior displacement of the capital epiphysis. It is a crescent-shaped area of increased density, that overlies the metaphysis adjacent to the physis on the ...
Article

Flowing ossifications

Flowing ossifications are seen in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). They are defined as heterotopic ossifications involving the anterior longitudinal ligament, paraspinal connective tissues and annulus fibrosus of at least four contiguous vertebral bodies and are originally descri...
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Parasyndesmophytes

Parasyndesmophytes or floating syndesmophytes are, as the name suggests, paravertebral dystrophic soft tissue calcifications or heterotopic ossifications. Pathology Etiology They are known to be seen in 4:  psoriatic arthritis reactive arthritis Radiographic features Initially they begin ...
Article

Solitary well-defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Solitary well-defined osteolytic lesions can be seen with the following conditions 1,2: subchondral geodes or cysts intraosseous ganglion intraosseous tophus (gout) unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst glomus tumor enchondroma epidermoid inclusion cyst chondroblastoma non-ossifyin...
Article

Solitary ill-defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Ill-defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be caused by following entities 1: intraosseous hemangioma chondroblastoma osteoblastoma giant cell tumor fibrosarcoma of bone malignant fibrous histiocytoma chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma Ewing sarcoma angiosarcoma multiple myeloma bone metas...
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Expansile lytic lesions without cortical destruction of bone (differential)

Expansile lytic bone lesions without cortical destruction can result from various benign and malignant neoplastic pathologies, causes include 1: unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst (eccentric) enchondroma chondromyxoid fibroma (eccentric) non-ossifying fibroma (eccentric) desmoplasti...
Article

Bridging of the pubic symphysis (differential)

Bridging (or fusion) of the pubic symphysis can be associated with various systemic and local causes, including 1-3: ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis surgical fusion post-traumatic post-infectious post-radiation therapy osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis osteitis pubis myo...
Article

Syndesmophyte

Syndesmophytes are calcifications or heterotopic ossifications inside a spinal ligament or of the annulus fibrosus.​ They are seen in only a limited number of conditions including:  ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis reactive arthritis psoriatic arthritis They can be classified as...
Article

Subcutaneous calcification (differential)

Subcutaneous calcification can be associated with a number of disorders. The list includes: dermatomyositis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome pseudoxanthoma elasticum basal cell nevus syndrome subcutaneous lipodystrophy venous thrombosis as a manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus varicose v...
Article

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease

Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD) is a disease of uncertain etiology characterized by periarticular and intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals. The shoulder is the most frequently involved site with classic calcific tendinitis presentation.   Epidemiology Hy...
Article

Monoarticular arthropathy

Monoarticular arthropathy can result from a number of causes: Commonest 2: gout (15-27%) septic arthritis (8-27%) osteoarthritis (5-17%) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (11-16%) Less common 2: traumatic arthritis HADD (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) reactive arthritis 2 avascular necrosi...
Article

Polyarticular arthropathy

Polyarticular arthropathy can arise from a number of causes. The list includes osteoarthritis (OA) erosive osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis (RA) psoriatic arthritis reactive arthritis ankylosing spondylitis gout calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) hemochromatosi...
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Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal women typically the interphalangeal joints, 1st carpometacarpal joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints clas...
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Periarticular soft tissue calcification

Common causes of periarticular soft tissue calcification include: myositis ossificans post surgical dystrophic calcification or heterotopic bone formation calcific tendinitis or bursitis gout CPPD HADD calcific periarthritis (fingers and toes) tuberculous arthritis scleroderma hyperpar...
Article

Wackenheims line

Wackenheims line (also known as the clivus canal line or basilar line) is formed by drawing a line along the clivus and extending it inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. Normally the tip of the dens is ventral and tangential to this line. In basilar invagination odontoid process transects th...
Article

Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis (also considered very similar to the term diaphragmatic palsy) can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying etiological factors: unilateral paralysis: asymptomatic in most of the patients as the oth...
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Congenital limb amputation

Congenital limb amputation is the absence of a fetal limb or part of a limb that usually occurs due to disruption of vascular supply. Epidemiology Congenital amputations occur in 0.5 (range 0.03-1) per 1000 live births 2.  Pathology They are slightly more common in the upper limb (60%) than ...
Article

Joint ankylosis (differential)

Joint ankylosis has a relatively broad differential including 1-5:   psoriatic arthritis ankylosing spondylitis chronic reactive arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis surgical ankylosis (arthrodesis) septic arthritis rheumatoid arthritis fluorosis ochronosis co...
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Vertebral lesion (differential)

Differential diagnosis of vertebral lesions is very wide. Differential diagnosis Vertebral body origin intraosseous hemangioma metastases Paget disease multiple myeloma osteonecrosis vertebral body osteomyelitis lymphoma plasmacytoma giant cell tumor Langerhans cell histiocytosis fi...
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Pseudoarthrosis (differential)

A pseudoarthrosis (plural: pseudoarthroses) (a.k.a. false joint) is a mobile fracture non-union. Pathology A fibrous, pseudosynovial capsule forms around the non-union and viscous fluid fills the site that may simulate synovial fluid. Etiology fracture non-union failed bone graft neurofibr...
Article

Monoarthritis (differential)

Monoarthritidies have a relatively short differential diagnosis, including: Common septic arthritis osteoarthritis (post-traumatic) gout Charcot joint  (neuropathic joint) tenosynovial giant cell tumor synovial osteochondromatosis Less common hemophilia tuberculosis fungal chondrolys...
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Soft tissue lesions with predominately low T1 and T2 signal (differential)

Soft tissue lesions with predominantly low T1 and T2 signal have a reasonably long differential, including:  Common air/gas densely calcified/ossified lesions foreign body gout flow voids arteriovenous fistula aneurysm postoperative changes hematoma, chronic plantar fibromatosis teno...
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Long bone metaphyseal cupping (differential)

Long bone metaphyseal cupping is most likely due to the local oligemia from thrombosis in the terminal epiphyseal arteries to the epiphyseal plate, induced by prolonged regional immobilization 7.  The differential diagnosis of long bone metaphyseal cupping includes:  Common normal variant re...
Article

Leave alone lesions - skeletal

Skeletal leave alone lesions, also called “do not touch” lesions, are so characteristic radiographically, that further diagnostic tests such as a biopsy are unnecessary and can be frankly misleading and lead to additional unnecessary surgery. Thus a radiologic diagnosis should be made without a ...
Article

Metal-on-metal pseudotumor

Metal-on-metal pseudotumors represent mass-forming inflammation around a metal-on-metal hip or knee replacement. The term describes one presentation on the spectrum of adverse reaction to metal debris. Clinical presentation Metal-on-metal pseudotumors are large focal solid or semiliquid masses...
Article

Metaphyseal lesions

The differential diagnosis for metaphyseal lesions includes: osteomyelitis metastases non-ossifying fibroma enchondroma aneurysmal bone cyst simple bone cyst chondromyxoid fibroma chondrosarcoma cortical desmoid giant cell tumor desmoplastic fibroma intraosseous lipoma osteosarcoma ...
Article

Swan neck deformity (fingers)

Swan neck deformity is a musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis presenting in a digit of the hand, due to the combination of: hyperextension of a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion of a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint Pathology The swan neck deformity, characteriz...
Article

Sausage digit

The term sausage digit refers to the clinical and radiologic appearance of diffuse fusiform swelling of a digit due to soft tissue inflammation from underlying arthritis or dactylitis.  Pathology Etiology The common causes of sausage digit are psoriatic arthropathy osteomyelitis sickle cel...
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Very bizarre generalized lesions of bone (differential)

Very bizarre generalized lesions of bone tend to make you exclaim "Oh my! What is going here?"  Although there are numerous potential causes, in this situation it is worth thinking of a number of entities: skeletal dysplasias and metabolic diseases Paget disease fibrous dysplasia phakomatose...
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Bone deformity from softening

Conditions associated with bone deformity from softening includes: hourglass thorax bowing of long bones acetabular protrusion buckled/compressed pelvis biconcave vertebral bodies / codfish vertebra
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Gull-wing appearance (phalanges)

The gull-wing appearance, also known as seagull erosions or sawtooth appearance, is classically seen in erosive osteoarthritis, typically on posteroanterior radiographs of the hands, although has also been reported in psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis. These erosions more commonly occur at the ...
Article

Pseudopermeative process in bone

A pseudopermeative process in bone has multiple small cortical holes that are then superimposed over the marrow, giving a similar appearance to a permeative process. Pathology Etiology The most common pathologies that manifest with pseudopermeative appearance (and mimic permeative lesions) ar...
Article

Lytic skull lesion

Lytic skull lesions have a relatively wide differential that can be narrowed, by considering if there are more than one lesion and whether the mandible is involved. Pathology Causes lytic skeletal metastases multiple myeloma epidermoid - scalloped border with a sclerotic rim eosinophilic g...
Article

Red marrow depletion (differential)

Complete fatty replacement of red marrow with fat on MRI can occur in a number of situations which includes: aplastic anemia chemotherapy regional radiation therapy See also bone marrow
Article

Complications of total hip arthroplasty

Complications of total hip arthroplasty are common and it is essential for the radiologist to be aware of them in the assessment of radiographs of total hip replacements. Complications are many and can occur at various time intervals following the initial surgery: aseptic loosening: considered ...
Article

Differential diagnosis for metatarsal region pain

Forefoot pain in the metatarsal region is a common complaint and may be caused by a number of conditions. It is worthwhile for a radiologist to have knowledge of the potential causes and their imaging features 1. Pathology Etiology Trauma turf toe plantar plate disruption sesamoiditis str...
Article

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a type of soft-tissue calcification, which occurs in damaged or necrotic tissue, while the serum level of calcium and phosphorus are normal. It may progress to ossification, in which case a cortical and trabecular bone pattern is visible. An often cited a...
Article

Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
Article

Lytic bone metastases

Lytic bone (osteolytic) metastases are distant tumor deposits of a primary tumor within bone characterized by a loss of bone with the destruction of the bone matrix. Epidemiology Lytic bone metastases are more common than sclerotic bone metastases. Diagnosis The diagnosis is usually establis...
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Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases

Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone (osteolytic and osteoblastic) metastases refer to metastatic bone disease with both sclerotic and lytic bone metastases or bone metastases with both components. Diagnosis The diagnosis is established by proof of sclerotic and lytic bone metastases of one primary ...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions 1. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to b...
Article

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognized, just like medical devices of the chest. We often ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal devices tube...
Article

Fetal rib fractures

Fetal rib fractures can be caused by certain skeletal dysplasias. These include: osteogenesis imperfecta: type II - one of the classical causes of fetal rib fractures achondrogenesis: type Ia - Houston-Harris sub type
Article

Bone-forming tumors

Bone-forming tumors are a subset of bone tumors that are characterized by their propensity to form excess osteoid. They can be further subdivided into benign and malignant tumors. Benign tumors osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma bone island osteopoikilosis osteoma ossifying fibroma 1 Malignan...
Article

Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
Article

Soft tissue calcification

Soft tissue calcification is commonly seen and caused by a wide range of pathology. Differential diagnosis There is a wide range of causes of soft tissue calcification 1: dystrophic soft tissue calcification (most common) chronic venous insufficiency 2 vascular arterial calcification phle...
Article

Vertebral body mass

The differential diagnosis for a vertebral body mass is broad and may range from a completely benign bone island to a malignant primary bone tumor. Classification Broadly, these lesions can be separated into: non-neoplastic lesions primary bone tumors secondary metastatic disease Non-neopl...
Article

Lethal skeletal dysplasias

Lethal skeletal dysplasias form a heterogeneous group that is commonly characterized as being non-survivable for prolonged periods ex-utero. They include (in alphabetical order): achondrogenesis atelosteogenesis campomelic dysplasia chondrodysplasia punctata: lethal variants  metatropic dys...
Article

Winking owl sign (spine)

The (absent) pedicle sign, also called the winking owl sign, occurs on plain radiograph of the spine when a pedicle is absent 5. The term, winking owl sign, where the missing pedicle corresponds to the closed eye, the contralateral pedicle to the other round open eye, and the spinous process to...
Article

Shortened fetal humerus

A shortened fetal humerus is a morphological description and is usually defined when the humeral length falls below the 5th percentile or less than 0.9 as predicted by the biparietal diameter (BPD). It can occur in isolation or in association with a number of other anomalies. The humeral length...

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