Reflux of contrast into inferior vena cava can be common findings seen on CT. It is considered a specific but insensitive sign of right-sided heart disease / right heart dysfunction at low contrast injection rates although the usefulness decreases with high injection rates.
Intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts, also referred to as intrahepatic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or hepatic arteriosystemic venous shunts, represent a spectrum of abnormal communications between the hepatic arterial system and the hepatic veins.
Please note that arterioportal shunts, whi...
Iliac vein occlusion can be due to a variety of causes including:
catheter dissection injuries
IVC filter insertion
direct tumor invasion
enlarged lymph nodes
Spinal vascular malformations are rare but knowledge of them is important as if undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to serious complications. The main types are arteriovenous fistulae, arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and capillary telangiectasia.
The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling.
It is commonly u...
Medical devices in the head and neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film, CT and MRI reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck into the chest and stomach or ascend to/into the head.
Vascular access devices
peripherally inserted central cat...
Pulmonary arterial calcification is a phenomenon which is usually seen in the setting of advanced pulmonary hypertension. It can however be uncommonly present in those without pulmonary hypertension.
The general mechanism in the vast majority is thought to be from high end pulmonary ...
Visceral artery aneurysms are abnormal focal dilatations of splanchnic arteries supplying abdominal organs. Visceral artery aneurysms include both true aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.
Owing to different clinical manifestations and a unique, specific, pathology, renal artery aneurysms are discuss...
Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology.
Massive hemoptysis is referred t...
Causes of a small aorta include:
giant cell arteritis
small aorta syndrome
Dilatation of the ascending aorta is a common finding in the elderly but unusual in younger patients.
In adults, an ascending aortic diameter greater than 4 cm is considered to indicate dilatation 4. Aneurysmal dilatation is considered when the ascending aortic diameter reaches or ex...
Pulmonary vasculitis refers to vasculitides that affect the lung or pulmonary vessels. If this definition is used, a large group of conditions can fall into this category. The respiratory system may be potentially involved in all systemic vasculitides, although to a variable degree.
Renal vein varices (singular: varix) develop for various reasons and are usually asymptomatic.
Renal vein varices are usually asymptomatic. Some patients may present with flank pain and/or hematuria.
chronic renal vein thrombosis
Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CT scans.
tubing, clamps, syringes, scissors, lying on or under the patient
rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings, etc. may also be visib...
Carotid pacemakers, also known as implantable carotid sinus stimulators, are devices that deliver activation energy, via carotid leads, to the carotid baroreceptors. This is sometimes offered for drug-resistant hypertension. The baroreceptors send signals to the brain and the signals are interpr...
Moyamoya syndrome, also termed the moyamoya pattern or phenomenon, is due to numerous conditions that can cause arterial occlusion of the circle of Willis, with resultant collaterals, and appearances reminiscent of moyamoya disease. These conditions include 1-4 :
vessel wall abnormalities
The differential diagnosis of vascular calcification is very wide with many common and uncommon conditions.
end-stage renal failure 3
hemangioma; arteriovenous malformation
hyperparathyroidism, primary or secondary (renal osteodystrop...
An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph.
Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorr...
When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1:
There are relatively few causes of calcification of the ascending aorta 1-3:
atherosclerosis (this usually spares the ascending aorta)
The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:
may appear prominent in young patients especially women
rotation of the heart
left lower lobe collapse
pulmonary arterial hyp...
Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz, and has a wide differential diagnosis:
An upper gastrointestinal bleed usually refers to bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz.
Hyperreninaemic hypertension may have many causes including:
renal artery stenosis
renal secreting tumor, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma
renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular hemorrhage (Page kidney)
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) (plural: stenoses) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin.
When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form a...
The differential for thoracic aortic stenosis includes:
aortitis (especially Takayasu arteritis)
Williams syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis
congenital rubella syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis
There is a broad differential for thoracic aortic dilatation.
post-stenotic dilatation, e.g. bicuspid aortic valve
thoracic aortic aneurysm
atherosclerosis (usually descending thoracic aorta)
Hypervascular liver lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background hepatic parenchyma in the late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI.
hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy
Cerebrovascular malformations are vascular malformations related to the vessels that supply the brain and other cranial structures.
Over the years, cerebrovascular malformations have been classified in a variety of ways by different authors.
Over the years cerebral vascular mal...
Venous thromboembolism covers a wide spectrum of diseases. Individual conditions and complicating condition include:
head and neck
cerebral vein thrombosis
dural venous sinus thrombosis
cavernous sinus thrombosis
deep cerebral vein thrombosis
cortical vein thrombosis
superior ophthalmic v...