Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

205 results found
Article

Cauldwell Classification

Cauldwell classification is a commonly used classification in assessing bronchial artery branching pattern. Classification The bronchial artery branching pattern is classified into four types based on the number of intercostobronchial trunks (ICBT) - that gives rise to right bronchial artery a...
Article

Chemical ablation

Introduction Chemical ablation is a technique in which chemical ablative substances are used to cause cell death in neoplastic tissue. It is used as a standalone procedure or in combination with other techniques like TACE and radiofrequency ablation. Agents Absolute ethanol (most commonly use...
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Gastrointestinal stents

Gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly used to treat obstruction of the GI tract, most commonly due to malignancy. Types of stent esophageal stent gastric stent duodenal stent enteric stent colorectal stent History and etymology Somewhat surprisingly the word 'stent' is actually a...
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Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation

Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation, also known as trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy, is a percutaneous interventional procedure used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. It is the most popular technique for trigeminal ablation. Indications trigeminal neuralgia resistant to traditional medical trea...
Article

Persistent primitive olfactory artery

A persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare variant of the proximal anterior cerebral artery 1,2. It is proposed to be more prone to aneurysms due to its sharp hairpin-like turn. Embryologically, the persistent primitive olfactory artery is the rostral division of the primitive inte...
Article

Contraceptive implant migration

Contraceptive implant migration is a rare complication of etonogestrel implant insertion.  Clinical presentation unable to palpate device in the upper arm chest pain dyspnea non-productive cough menorrhagia irregular vaginal bleeding Pathology Contraceptive implants are most commonly in...
Article

Nephrostogram

Nephrostogram, also known as antegrade pyelogram, is a special x-ray procedure that fluoroscopically evaluates the upper collecting system by introducing water-soluble contrast through the nephrostomy catheter.  Indications Nephrostogram can be useful to determine tube position or assess resid...
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Superior hypogastric nerve block

Superior hypogastric nerve block is a valuable tool for pain relief in the setting of uterine fibroid embolization. This procedure results in significant ischemic pain, peaking at 6-8 hours and lasting approximately 24 hours, then followed by a lesser degree of post-embolization pain which can l...
Article

Cryoablation

Cryoablation refers to the use of thermal energy in the form of very low temperatures to achieve targeted destruction of tumor cells. It is an image-guided technique, currently widely employed in the management of renal 1, hepatic 2 and lung tumors 3. Historically, a rudimental form of cryosurg...
Article

Pericapsular nerve group block (ultrasound-guided)

Pericapsular nerve group (PENG) blocks are one approach for delivering anesthesia to the hip joint. It is most commonly used in patients with fractures of the hip and bony pelvis 1.  Indications acetabular fractures 5 pubic rami fractures proximal femoral fractures intertrochanteric fractur...
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Quadratus femoris injection (technique)

Quadratus femoris injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate and ensure the sciatic nerve is avoided during the procedure.  CT and ultrasound can be used, with ultrasound becoming more challenging in those with larger body habitus. Indications therapeutic for ischi...
Article

Z-track technique for paracentesis

The Z-track technique is used for paracentesis. It produces a non-linear track between the dermis and the peritoneum, and this serves to decrease the chance of ascitic fluid leakage through the track. Procedure Instead of directly sticking the access needle from the skin surface into the perit...
Article

Ghost infarct core

Ghost infarct core refers to the phenomenon that CT perfusion may overestimate infarct core on admission, especially in the early time window of a stroke, by predicting lesion in areas that will not show infarct on follow-up imaging 1. This mismatch is defined as the initial infarct core - final...
Article

Angioleiomyoma

Angioleiomyoma also known as angiomyoma or vascular leiomyoma is a benign pericytic or perivascular soft tissue tumor.   Epidemiology Angioleimyomas are rare and have been observed in a wide age range with a peak in the 4th to 6th decades of life. Generally, women are more commonly affected 1-...
Article

Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture is a commonly-performed hospital procedure in which a needle is inserted through the back to the subarachnoid space in the spinal canal often to collect some cerebrospinal fluid or inject a therapeutic agent. The procedure can be performed under imaging-guidance, e.g. fluoroscopy...
Article

Trocar technique

The trocar technique is a common technique for surgical procedures and interventional placement of tubes and drainage where instruments, tubes or drains are advanced to the target location through a fixed cannula or hollow tube namely the trocar, which acts as a portal in the process. History ...
Article

Percutaenous renal tumor ablation

Percutaneous ablation in the kidney is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection. It is performed via radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation. Follow-up time frame Can vary according to center but usually includes contrast-...
Article

Subtalar joint injection (technique)

Subtalar joint injections are most often performed for osteoarthritis and the posterior subtalar joint is targeted.  Ultrasound, fluoroscopy and CT guidance can be used. Indications osteoarthritis diagnostic Contraindications Absolute anaphylaxis to contrast/injectates active local/system...
Article

No-touch ablation technique

No-touch ablation techniques, using either microwave or radiofrequency to generate heating, refer to approaches whereby the probes are placed at multiple oblique sites tangential and adjacent to the targeted tumor (cf. probe placement centrally within the tumor). Indications  For general indic...
Article

Pudendal nerve block (technique)

Pudendal nerve blocks are performed on those with suspected or proven pudendal neuralgia. Using CT will ensure accurate needle placement, which aims for a perineural pudendal nerve injection in the pudendal canal, also known as Alcock's canal.  Indications pudendal neuralgia diagnostic Contr...
Article

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage (technique)

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage is a procedure performed under ultrasound guidance with the aim of reducing the bulk of tendon calcification, in a similar fashion to that performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy.  Indications gluteus minimus/medius tendon calcifi...
Article

Bariatric embolization

Bariatric embolization is an interventional procedure performed with a view to inducing weight-loss in the treatment of obesity. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that the procedure is well tolerated and has a good safety profile. Early studies demonstrate a mild-moderate beneficial effect....
Article

Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis or joint aspiration is an interventional procedure done for the collection of synovial fluid. History The existence of liquid inside joints was first mentioned in the Corpus Hippocraticum, later in the 16th century, Paracelsus coined the name “synovia” for synovial fluid. Indic...
Article

Knee joint injection (technique)

Knee joint injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the knee joint. Either fluoroscopy, ultrasound or CT can be used to guide and administer injectates, which may be diagnostic (e.g. anesthetic), "therapeutic" (e.g. anesthetic/steroids, PRP), or for CT or MR a...
Article

EUS-guided biliary drainage

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage is an alternative to conventional transpapillary and percutaneous biliary drainage in where an extra-anatomic route is created between the biliary tree and the gastrointestinal tract.  Indications failed endoscopic transpapillary biliary drai...
Article

Endosaccular flow disruption devices

Endosaccular flow disruption devices, also simply known as flow disruptors, are used for the treatment of either ruptured or unruptured saccular, wide-neck, usually bifurcation as well as side-wall intracranial aneurysms. Their primary function is to stop blood from flowing into the aneurysm, al...
Article

Billowing phenomenon

Billowing phenomenon refers to the presence of contrast medium on contrast-enhanced CT outside of graft metal struts, due to the specific construction characteristic typical of the AFX® stent-graft (Endologix, Inc., USA), designed to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms. It has a unique internal sca...
Article

Remasking

Remasking is a post-processing technique used to improve misregistration artifact in digital subtraction angiography, where a frame taken after patient motion is selected as the new mask image for subtraction. In digital subtraction angiography, misregistration (improper image registration) is ...
Article

Inferior vena cava filter retrieval

Inferior vena cava filter retrieval is an endovascular procedure whereby a previously placed inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is removed. Procedure The procedure is performed under local anesthesia with fluoroscopic guidance. Venous access is usually gained via the internal jugular vein with di...
Article

Superior rectal artery embolization

Superior rectal artery embolization is a minimally invasive endovascular technique which has a role in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and has recently re-emerged as a potential option for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoidal disease, this article will focus on the l...
Article

Endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation

Endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation is a recently developed minimally invasive alternative for the creation of arteriovenous fistulae for haemodialysis access. Technique Catheter-based technology and image guidance in the form of ultrasound and fluoroscopy is utilized create a side-to-...
Article

Chiba needle

The Chiba needle is one of the most commonly used biopsy/percutaneous access needles. It is a two-part hollow needle with a beveled tip angled at 30 degrees. The inner stylet (which is also beveled) is removable. The beveling of the Chiba needle results in superior steering compared to conventio...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint injection (technique)

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the joint and importantly that needle depth is under direct visualization.   Indications pain arthropathy, e.g. osteoarthritis diagnostic injection Contraindications Absolute anaphyla...
Article

Hip joint injection (technique)

Hip joint injections can be performed with a variety of image guidance, including fluoroscopy and ultrasound, which are used to administer MRI arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing anesthetic arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI: labral injury anesthetic pain/arthropathy, e.g. ost...
Article

Greater trochanteric bursa injection (technique)

Greater femoral trochanteric bursa injections under ultrasound guidance ensure the injectate is accurately given into the bursa. The greater trochanteric bursa is the largest of the bursae surrounding the proximal femur, with the others including the subgluteus minimus and subgluteus medius burs...
Article

Long head of biceps brachii tendon sheath injection (technique)

Long head of biceps brachii (LHB) tendon sheath injections under ultrasound guidance ensure accurate delivery of injectate, which is important as these injections are often performed for diagnostic purposes.    Indications pain diagnostic injection alternative access to the glenohumeral join...
Article

Acromioclavicular joint injection (technique)

Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the joint.  Ultrasound allows for real-time visualization of the needle and administration of the injectate. Fluoroscopy is an alternative method of image guidance. Indications pain: arth...
Article

Twig-like middle cerebral artery

Twig-like middle cerebral artery or rete mirabile anomaly describes a discontinuity of a single trunk of the middle cerebral artery with several small vessels reconstituting the artery and giving it a twig-like appearance. Distally, normal vascular anatomy of the MCA branches need to be present ...
Article

Percutaneous liver tumor ablation

Percutaneous liver tumor ablation techniques are well-established and effective therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal oligometastatic disease are the most common indications. There are specific indications ...
Article

Percutaneous lung tumor ablation

Percutaneous lung tumor ablation techniques are an alternative to surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of certain malignancies. They have specific indications and contraindications, but are mostly limited to small oligonodular and favourably located lesions.  They ...
Article

Ulnar nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Ulnar nerve blocks are an approach for delivering anesthesia to the ulnar nerve territory either as a standalone blockade or combined with brachial plexus, radial or median nerve block. Indications burns involving tissue in the ulnar nerve territory rescue analgesia for failed brachial plexus...
Article

Radial nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Radial nerve blocks are a procedure for delivering anesthesia to the radial nerve territory either as a standalone blockade or in conjunction with a brachial plexus, ulnar or median nerve block. Indications association with median nerve block radial tunnel syndrome forearm and hand surgical ...
Article

Median nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Median nerve block is a technique used for providing anesthesia to the median nerve territory, it may be performed at the level of the arm, elbow, forearm or the wrist. Indications fracture reductions surgical repair of fractures incision and drainage of cysts and abscesses post-operative a...
Article

Rotator cuff calcific tendinitis barbotage

Rotator cuff calcific tendonitis can be treated with various techniques including ultrasound-guided barbotage, which is also known as ultrasound-guided needling and lavage. It is often performed in conjunction with a subacromial bursal injection. Alternative treatments include extracorporeal sho...
Article

Tachon syndrome

Tachon syndrome is a rare systemic side effect of epidural or intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Clinical presentation Minutes after injection, patients may complain of 1: acute low back pain chest tightness facial erythema profuse sweating cough agitation Treatment and prognosi...
Article

Arthrogram (anesthetic)

An arthrogram injection is a procedure in which a solution is administered into a joint under imaging guidance. These procedures are more accurately named direct arthrogram injections, although they are routinely known as arthrograms. Fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and CT can be used for image guidanc...
Article

Arthrogram (CT)

A CT arthrogram is a CT performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast. They are not commonly abbreviated as CTA, which will be confused with CT angiography. An arthrogram also refers to the procedure of injecting a joint. Indications shoulder: instability, g...
Article

Arthrogram

An arthrogram (or arthrography) is a commonly performed procedure in musculoskeletal radiology, which can refer to both an injection into a joint, and cross-sectional imaging after a joint is injected. Indications Arthrograms are performed for a variety of indications including:  labral tear ...
Article

Arthrogram (MRI)

An MR arthrogram is an MRI performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing gadolinium. Sometimes abbreviated to MRA, which can be confused with MR angiography. MRI can also be performed after an injection is not directly administered into the joint, via an indirect arthrogram. An ...
Article

Juan M Taveras

Juan M Taveras (1919-2002) was an American neuroradiologist, who is remembered chiefly for his work in establishing neuroradiology as a separate subspecialty in the United States. He was the principal mover behind the founding of the American Society of Neuroradiology and its primary publicatio...
Article

Splenic biopsy

Percutaneous splenic biopsy, using either ultrasound or CT guidance, is an accurate and reliable method of acquiring splenic tissue for histopathological assessment and has been proposed as an alternative for splenectomy in selected patients. Although the procedure has been historically feared ...
Article

MRI targeted prostate biopsy

MRI targeted prostate biopsy refers to an imaging targeted technique rather than the traditional systematic approach of a prostate biopsy after respective imaging with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. As a consequence of the recent advances of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the pros...
Article

Symphyseal cleft injection

Symphyseal cleft injections (symphysography) are performed as both diagnostic and therapeutic measures for patients with (suspected) osteitis pubis, usually under CT or fluoroscopy.  Indications suspected or confirmed osteitis pubis Contraindications factors to be considered as per any muscu...
Article

Groshong catheter

Groshong® catheters are a type of central venous catheter, which are placed under direct fluoroscopic visualization in an angiography suite. They can be tunnelled or non-tunnelled and are similar to a Hickman catheter, with the main difference being that Groshong catheters have a three-way valve...
Article

Esophageal varix

Esophageal varices describe dilated submucosal veins of the esophagus, and are an important portosystemic collateral pathway. They are considered distinct from gastric varices, which are less common. Epidemiology Esophageal varices are present in ~50% of patients with portal hypertension 1,2. ...
Article

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization is a CT-guided procedure where a marker is applied to a usually small lung lesion to assist in its surgical identification and resection. The widespread use of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the advance in robotically assisted surgical inter...
Article

Tumor ablation

Tumor ablation, or image-guided tumor ablation, is the direct application of chemical or energy-based (i.e. thermal and non-thermal) treatments to cause local tumor destruction. Techniques include: energy-based techniques thermal ablation radiofrequency ablation (RFA) microwave ablation (MWA...
Article

Key figures in the history of radiology

In the history of radiology certain key figures stand out for their groundbreaking contributions to the establishment and development of radiology as a science, medical specialty and major advance in patient care. This list is by necessity arbitrary, although we (the editors) hope that the major...
Article

Expanded treatment in cerebral ischemia (eTICI) score

The expanded treatment in cerebral infarction (eTICI) score is a modified from the modified treatment in cerebral infarction (mTICI) and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scales. It was published by the HERMES investigators in 20191. Using modified Rankin scale (mRs) shift at 90 days a...
Article

Robotics in interventional radiology

Robotics in interventional radiology (IR) is an emerging area following the growth of engineering technology. Machine-assisted procedures are already performed in various disciplines including general, cardiothoracic and urologic surgery. The best-known is the Da Vinci® Surgical System. The appl...
Article

Superficial cervical plexus nerve block (ultrasound)

The superficial cervical plexus nerve block is a field block indicated for procedures involving, and anesthesia of, the anterolateral neck and the skin overlying the clavicle. The superficial cervical plexus (SCP) includes the greater auricular, lesser occipital, transverse cervical, and supracl...
Article

Thoracic duct embolization

Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) is a safe, efficacious treatment for chylothorax 1. Chylothoraces with a low drain output (<1L/day) are traditionally managed conservatively with dietary change, whilst high output (>1L/d) are managed with surgical thoracic duct (TD) ligation 2. Thoracic duct em...
Article

Implantable port

Implantable ports, also known as chemoports, totally implantable central venous access ports or Port-A-Caths®, are a type of central venous catheter for patients requiring long-term venous access. They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access with some of the advantages over per...
Article

Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG)

A radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is a procedure where a tube is inserted percutaneously into the stomach, principally to provide nutritional support for patients with swallowing disorders 1. Indications inadequate oral intake due to dysphagia (neurologic disorder, esophageal obstruc...
Article

Denver shunt

A Denver shunt, or peritoneovenous shunt, is a device used to shunt ascites to the superior vena cava in patients with refractory ascites. The proximal end is located in the peritoneal cavity and the distal end in the superior vena cava, with a subcutaneous course in the anterior chest wall. It...
Article

Peritoneal dialysis catheter

A peritoneal dialysis catheter is a flexible tube designed for peritoneal dialysis, the most well-known and widely-used being the Tenckhoff catheter.  History In 1968 an American nephrologist Henry A Tenckhoff (d.2017) 2 introduced his eponymous peritoneal indwelling catheter 1. The major impr...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is a technique used by interventional radiologists in the treatment of gastric varices, particularly those with prominent infra-diaphragmatic portosystemic venous shunts (e.g. gastro-renal and gastro-caval shunts). The technique is mor...
Article

Heimlich valve

The Heimlich valve, also known as the flutter valve, is a unidirectional valve to ensure that gas/fluid drained from the pleural space cannot flow back in.  The Heimlich valve is cheap, easy to use, and does not require clamping unlike 'traditional' thoracostomy drainage tubes. Suction can stil...
Article

Liver biopsy (percutaneous)

Percutaneous liver biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT guidance, allows for an accurate and reliable method of acquiring hepatic tissue for histopathological assessment. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted liver biopsy (used in the assessment and staging of the parench...
Article

Shoulder injection (disambiguation)

Shoulder injection is a general term, especially for the patient, for a variety of procedures including: acromioclavicular joint injection glenohumeral joint injection glenohumeral (shoulder) arthrography glenohumeral (shoulder) hydrodilatation long head of biceps tendon sheath injection r...
Article

Glenohumeral joint injection (technique)

Glenohumeral joint injections (often referred to as shoulder injections ) are performed as part of a number of therapeutic and imaging procedures using a variety of approaches and modalities. The underlying principles shared by all techniques are to avoid damage to the glenoid labrum, long head ...
Article

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a recently developed treatment for hemorrhagic shock used in major trauma patients with life-threatening abdominal or lower limb bleeding.  The aortic balloon is delivered on a catheter via the femoral artery in order to reduc...
Article

Charles T Dotter

Charles T Dotter (1920-1985) is often considered the father of interventional radiology who in 1964 performed the very first peripheral angioplasty, and made many other major contributions in this field. Early life Charles Theodore Dotter was born in Boston on 14 June 1920. He graduated with a...
Article

Periprocedural anticoagulation

When planning an interventional procedure a patient’s coagulation status must be assessed and optimized to best balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. The following must be considered; bleeding risks associated with the procedure medications the patient is taking that alter coagulation o...
Article

Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access line. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumoth...
Article

Ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia

With the growing incidence of obesity in the western world, ultrasound-guided anesthesia is becoming more common. Spinal anesthesia is traditionally administered by identifying relevant surface anatomy and imaging is rarely used for pre-procedural identification of structures.  Indications low...
Article

Needle gauge system

The needle gauge system, often called just the Gauge or G, is an internationally-used scale for sizing needles. It was adopted from pre-existing gauges which were used in industry to size metal wire. In contradistinction to the French scale, the other well-known sizing system, which is a metric...
Article

French gauge

The French gauge (Fr) (also known as the French scale or system) is used to size catheters, and other instruments, in interventional radiology and surgery. In some parts of the world, the Charrière (Ch) is used as the name of the unit, in honor of its inventor.  French sizing The French system...
Article

Woggle technique (interventional procedure)

The Woggle technique is the purse-string suture modified using to close a puncture site after a percutaneous procedure. Techniques common to all procedure include: a purse-string suture is done around the introducer sheath (the short plastic tube placed within a vein or artery) cut the needle...
Article

Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...
Article

Sven-Ivar Seldinger

Sven-Ivar Seldinger (1921-1998), a Swedish radiologist, is primarily remembered for the invention of his revolutionary eponymous technique.  Early life Sven-Ivar Seldinger was born in Mora, Dalarna, Sweden on 19 April 1921 5. He attended medical school at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm ...
Article

Patient safety checklist (interventional radiology)

Patient safety has been defined as the absence of preventable harm to a patient during the process of healthcare. Patient safety checklists have been developed by interventional radiologists to govern patient safety and they are useful for the practitioner to keep in mind to ensure every patient...
Article

Seldinger technique

The Seldinger technique is the mainstay of vascular and other luminal access in interventional radiology.  Uses digital subtraction angiography insertion of central venous catheters insertion of chest drains insertion of pacemaker leads or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators insertion ...
Article

Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR)

Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR) is increasingly performed in patients presenting with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO), especially those with a large ischemic penumbra that is likely to progress to ischemic stroke. To be successful, careful patient selection and dedicated training and eq...
Article

Glenohumeral arthrography

Glenohumeral (shoulder) arthrography is an imaging technique used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint to evaluate the joint components. A glenohumeral joint injection is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance although ultrasound and CT can be also be used. An alternative to direct arthrogr...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) is a standardized findings communication method and clinical decision aid relevant to coronary CT angiography. The system was created by a collaboration of the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), American Colle...
Article

Type III endoleak

A type III endoleak is a type of endoleak which usually occurs through a defect in the graft. It may be divided into two components.  IIIa: junctional separation of the modular components IIIb: fractures or holes involving the endograft Epidemiology It is relatively uncommon and only occurs ...
Article

Pulmonary artery catheter

Pulmonary artery catheters (or Swan-Ganz catheters) are balloon flotation catheters that can be inserted simply, quickly, with little training and without fluoroscopic guidance, at the bedside, even in the seriously ill patient. Historically they were widely used to measure right heart hemodynam...
Article

Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheobronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or esophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treatme...
Article

Basilar artery aneurysm

Basilar artery aneurysms are less common than anterior circulation aneurysms, and rupture less frequently, but their critical location necessitates careful evaluation.  Unruptured basilar artery aneurysms occurs in 3% of all intracranial aneurysms 4. Radiographic features CT may present as ...
Article

DNB in endovascular and interventional radiology

Diplomate of National Board (DNB)​ in endovascular and interventional radiology is a postdoctoral super specialty programme in India.  eligibility postgraduate degree in radiology (MD/DNB) National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Super Speciality courses) (NEETSS)/Common Entrance Test (Super S...
Article

DM interventional radiology

DM interventional radiology superspecialty course is a 3-year postgraduate subspecialty training in interventional radiology with the pre-requisites being a primary medical degree and MD radiodiagnosis or DNB radiodiagnosis. Successful completion of the course requires submission of a thesis at ...

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