Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

205 results found
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. This provides localized targeted internal radiation. Brachytherapy has been...
Article

Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications inc...
Article

Basilar artery aneurysm

Basilar artery aneurysms are less common than anterior circulation aneurysms, and rupture less frequently, but their critical location necessitates careful evaluation.  Unruptured basilar artery aneurysms occurs in 3% of all intracranial aneurysms 4. Radiographic features CT may present as ...
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Radioembolization

Radioembolization is the delivery of radioactive microspheres to cancers using an endovascular approach. It is often performed as an outpatient procedure.  Indications hepatocellular carcinoma 2 hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma Contraindications Absolute contraindications exces...
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Hip joint injection (technique)

Hip joint injections can be performed with a variety of image guidance, including fluoroscopy and ultrasound, which are used to administer MRI arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing anesthetic arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI: labral injury anesthetic pain/arthropathy, e.g. ost...
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Knee joint injection (technique)

Knee joint injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the knee joint. Either fluoroscopy, ultrasound or CT can be used to guide and administer injectates, which may be diagnostic (e.g. anesthetic), "therapeutic" (e.g. anesthetic/steroids, PRP), or for CT or MR a...
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Subtalar joint injection (technique)

Subtalar joint injections are most often performed for osteoarthritis and the posterior subtalar joint is targeted.  Ultrasound, fluoroscopy and CT guidance can be used. Indications osteoarthritis diagnostic Contraindications Absolute anaphylaxis to contrast/injectates active local/system...
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Percutaneous liver tumor ablation

Percutaneous liver tumor ablation techniques are well-established and effective therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal oligometastatic disease are the most common indications. There are specific indications ...
Article

Endosaccular flow disruption devices

Endosaccular flow disruption devices, also simply known as flow disruptors, are used for the treatment of either ruptured or unruptured saccular, wide-neck, usually bifurcation as well as side-wall intracranial aneurysms. Their primary function is to stop blood from flowing into the aneurysm, al...
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Arthrogram (anesthetic)

An arthrogram injection is a procedure in which a solution is administered into a joint under imaging guidance. These procedures are more accurately named direct arthrogram injections, although they are routinely known as arthrograms. Fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and CT can be used for image guidanc...
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Long head of biceps brachii tendon sheath injection (technique)

Long head of biceps brachii (LHB) tendon sheath injections under ultrasound guidance ensure accurate delivery of injectate, which is important as these injections are often performed for diagnostic purposes.    Indications pain diagnostic injection alternative access to the glenohumeral join...
Article

Greater trochanteric bursa injection (technique)

Greater femoral trochanteric bursa injections under ultrasound guidance ensure the injectate is accurately given into the bursa. The greater trochanteric bursa is the largest of the bursae surrounding the proximal femur, with the others including the subgluteus minimus and subgluteus medius burs...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint injection (technique)

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the joint and importantly that needle depth is under direct visualization.   Indications pain arthropathy, e.g. osteoarthritis diagnostic injection Contraindications Absolute anaphyla...
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Acromioclavicular joint injection (technique)

Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the joint.  Ultrasound allows for real-time visualization of the needle and administration of the injectate. Fluoroscopy is an alternative method of image guidance. Indications pain: arth...
Article

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage (technique)

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage is a procedure performed under ultrasound guidance with the aim of reducing the bulk of tendon calcification, in a similar fashion to that performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy.  Indications gluteus minimus/medius tendon calcifi...
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Pudendal nerve block (technique)

Pudendal nerve blocks are performed on those with suspected or proven pudendal neuralgia. Using CT will ensure accurate needle placement, which aims for a perineural pudendal nerve injection in the pudendal canal, also known as Alcock's canal.  Indications pudendal neuralgia diagnostic Contr...
Article

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization is a CT-guided procedure where a marker is applied to a usually small lung lesion to assist in its surgical identification and resection. The widespread use of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the advance in robotically assisted surgical inter...
Article

Arthrogram (CT)

A CT arthrogram is a CT performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast. They are not commonly abbreviated as CTA, which will be confused with CT angiography. An arthrogram also refers to the procedure of injecting a joint. Indications shoulder: instability, g...
Article

Twig-like middle cerebral artery

Twig-like middle cerebral artery or rete mirabile anomaly describes a discontinuity of a single trunk of the middle cerebral artery with several small vessels reconstituting the artery and giving it a twig-like appearance. Distally, normal vascular anatomy of the MCA branches need to be present ...
Article

Transforaminal epidural steroid injection

Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI), also known as transforaminal nerve root injections or nerve root blocks, are performed for the treatment and diagnosis of radicular pain. They differ from selective nerve root blocks (SNRB), as the aim is to get an "epidural spill" and get the ...
Article

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree and pancreatic ductal system. It can provide diagnostically-equivalent images to ERCP and and is a useful technique in high risk patients to avoid signific...
Article

Cauldwell Classification

Cauldwell classification is a commonly used classification in assessing bronchial artery branching pattern. Classification The bronchial artery branching pattern is classified into four types based on the number of intercostobronchial trunks (ICBT) - that gives rise to right bronchial artery a...
Article

Chemical ablation

Introduction Chemical ablation is a technique in which chemical ablative substances are used to cause cell death in neoplastic tissue. It is used as a standalone procedure or in combination with other techniques like TACE and radiofrequency ablation. Agents Absolute ethanol (most commonly use...
Article

Stereotactic breast biopsy

Stereotactic breast biopsy refers to percutaneous sampling of breast tissue using mammographic guidance for targeting. Indications It is the biopsy method of choice when the finding of interest is best seen on mammography, such as microcalcifications (most common), architectural distortion, or...
Article

Pulmonary artery catheter

Pulmonary artery catheters (or Swan-Ganz catheters) are balloon flotation catheters that can be inserted simply, quickly, with little training and without fluoroscopic guidance, at the bedside, even in the seriously ill patient. Historically they were widely used to measure right heart hemodynam...
Article

Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as hepatic radioembolization, is a relatively new and developing modality for treating non-resectable liver tumors. The procedure consists of a transcatheter injection of radioactive particles via the hepatic artery.  It is generally consi...
Article

Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post-lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anesthesiologists.  Indications craniospinal hypoten...
Article

Persistent primitive olfactory artery

A persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare variant of the proximal anterior cerebral artery 1,2. It is proposed to be more prone to aneurysms due to its sharp hairpin-like turn. Embryologically, the persistent primitive olfactory artery is the rostral division of the primitive inte...
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Key figures in the history of radiology

In the history of radiology certain key figures stand out for their groundbreaking contributions to the establishment and development of radiology as a science, medical specialty and major advance in patient care. This list is by necessity arbitrary, although we (the editors) hope that the major...
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Retroaortic left renal vein

Retroaortic left renal vein (RLRV) is a normal anatomical variant where the left renal vein is located between the aorta and the vertebra and drains into the inferior vena cava. Its recognition is important in order to avoid complications during retroperitoneal surgery or interventional procedu...
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Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture is a commonly-performed hospital procedure in which a needle is inserted through the back to the subarachnoid space in the spinal canal often to collect some cerebrospinal fluid or inject a therapeutic agent. The procedure can be performed under imaging-guidance, e.g. fluoroscopy...
Article

Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty is an imaging-guided procedure which entails percutaneous injection of surgical polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement into a diseased vertebral body. Vertebroplasty provides pain relief and strengthens the bone of vertebrae weakened by disease. Indications It can be used as a tre...
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Gastrointestinal stents

Gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly used to treat obstruction of the GI tract, most commonly due to malignancy. Types of stent esophageal stent gastric stent duodenal stent enteric stent colorectal stent History and etymology Somewhat surprisingly the word 'stent' is actually a...
Article

Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
Article

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
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Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation

Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation, also known as trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy, is a percutaneous interventional procedure used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. It is the most popular technique for trigeminal ablation. Indications trigeminal neuralgia resistant to traditional medical trea...
Article

Nephrostogram

Nephrostogram, also known as antegrade pyelogram, is a special x-ray procedure that fluoroscopically evaluates the upper collecting system by introducing water-soluble contrast through the nephrostomy catheter.  Indications Nephrostogram can be useful to determine tube position or assess resid...
Article

Thoracic duct embolization

Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) is a safe, efficacious treatment for chylothorax 1. Chylothoraces with a low drain output (<1L/day) are traditionally managed conservatively with dietary change, whilst high output (>1L/d) are managed with surgical thoracic duct (TD) ligation 2. Thoracic duct em...
Article

Median nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Median nerve block is a technique used for providing anesthesia to the median nerve territory, it may be performed at the level of the arm, elbow, forearm or the wrist. Indications fracture reductions surgical repair of fractures incision and drainage of cysts and abscesses post-operative a...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then the technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as a treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are tha...
Article

T tube cholangiogram

T-tube cholangiograms are a fluoroscopic study performed in the setting of hepatobiliary disease.  This technique has been largely superseded by MRCP and ERCP. Typically a T-shaped tube is left in the common bile duct at the time of surgery (e.g. cholecystectomy) and allows for exploration of t...
Article

Contraceptive implant migration

Contraceptive implant migration is a rare complication of etonogestrel implant insertion.  Clinical presentation unable to palpate device in the upper arm chest pain dyspnea non-productive cough menorrhagia irregular vaginal bleeding Pathology Contraceptive implants are most commonly in...
Article

Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
Article

Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of the general male population and ~40% of subferti...
Article

Fine needle aspiration (FNA)

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a type of minimally-invasive tissue sampling. It often uses ultrasound as a targeting instrument, although CT and even MRI or fluoroscopy could potentially be used, depending on the situation. Imaging guidance is particularly useful when sampling deep or diffuse l...
Article

Sacroiliac joint injection

Sacroiliac joint injections can be performed using a posterior approach into the sacroiliac (SI) joint under fluoroscopic or CT guidance. It is often performed bilaterally. Indications diagnostic: relief of pain after injection of local anesthetic therapeutic: to relieve pain from degenerativ...
Article

Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
Article

Post-thrombotic syndrome

Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
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Percutaneous nephrostomy

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a form of nephrostomy in which percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved under radiological guidance. The access is then often maintained with the use of an indwelling catheter. Indications Percutaneous nephrostomy is usually reserved for when retrograde approac...
Article

Watchman device

Watchman device is a permanent left atrial appendage closure device, which is percutaneously implanted to prevent embolization of thrombus from the appendage into the systemic circulation in cases of atrial fibrillation. It is used when there is a contraindication to anticoagulation or high risk...
Article

Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
Article

Superior hypogastric nerve block

Superior hypogastric nerve block is a valuable tool for pain relief in the setting of uterine fibroid embolization. This procedure results in significant ischemic pain, peaking at 6-8 hours and lasting approximately 24 hours, then followed by a lesser degree of post-embolization pain which can l...
Article

Adrenal vein sampling

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is a procedure where blood is collected from the adrenal veins via catheter to confirm autonomous hormone production, if it is unilateral or bilateral, and to guide further treatment. Indication Adrenal vein sampling is commonly performed in primary aldosteronism, b...
Article

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or TIPSS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient...
Article

Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
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Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in the visualization of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnost...
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Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, also known as percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD), is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction.  It is almost exclusively performed in those with a malignant obstruction, such as cholangiocar...
Article

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic, as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Etiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following femoral arterial puncture for endovascular intervention ...
Article

Trocar technique

The trocar technique is a common technique for surgical procedures and interventional placement of tubes and drainage where instruments, tubes or drains are advanced to the target location through a fixed cannula or hollow tube namely the trocar, which acts as a portal in the process. History ...
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Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis or joint aspiration is an interventional procedure done for the collection of synovial fluid. History The existence of liquid inside joints was first mentioned in the Corpus Hippocraticum, later in the 16th century, Paracelsus coined the name “synovia” for synovial fluid. Indic...
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Cell block cytology

Cell block cytology is a technique used in cytopathology (in addition to smears) for evaluation of tissue from fine needle aspirations (FNA) or fluid aspirations. Multiple different protocols exist for processing a cell block, but the fundamental principles are the same: fragmentary bits of ti...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG)

A radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is a procedure where a tube is inserted percutaneously into the stomach, principally to provide nutritional support for patients with swallowing disorders 1. Indications inadequate oral intake due to dysphagia (neurologic disorder, esophageal obstruc...
Article

Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure that uses a high-frequency alternating current produced by a radiofrequency generator oscillating in a closed-loop circuit. This current heats a needle to over 60°C, which is used to cause intentional protein denaturation and tissue damage 1. ...
Article

TIPS evaluation

TIPS evaluation is useful to ensure that a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is working properly and that no stenosis has occurred within the stent. Ultrasound is often used as a first-line modality. Radiographic features Ultrasound The normal TIPS should show color Doppler...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC), also known as central venous lines (CVL), refer to a wide range of catheters that are inserted so that their distal tips lie in a central vein. Central venous access devices can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, an...
Article

Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test, also known as diaphragm fluoroscopy, is a quick and easy real time fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragmatic motor function (excursion). It is used most often to confirm absence of muscular contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration in patients with phrenic nerve...
Article

Liver biopsy (percutaneous)

Percutaneous liver biopsy, utilizing either ultrasound or CT guidance, allows for an accurate and reliable method of acquiring hepatic tissue for histopathological assessment. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted liver biopsy (used in the assessment and staging of the parench...
Article

Abdominal paracentesis

An abdominal paracentesis (plural: paracenteses), more commonly referred to as an ascitic tap, is a procedure that can be performed to collect peritoneal fluid for analysis or as a therapeutic intervention. Indications diagnostic: especially for newly-diagnosed ascites determine etiology of a...
Article

MRI targeted prostate biopsy

MRI targeted prostate biopsy refers to an imaging targeted technique rather than the traditional systematic approach of a prostate biopsy after respective imaging with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. As a consequence of the recent advances of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the pros...
Article

Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, hemofiltration and plasma exchange. These are commonly referred to as (internal) jugular venous (IJV) catheters. Typically, the right internal jugular is used as...
Article

Tumor ablation

Tumor ablation, or image-guided tumor ablation, is the direct application of chemical or energy-based (i.e. thermal and non-thermal) treatments to cause local tumor destruction. Techniques include: energy-based techniques thermal ablation radiofrequency ablation (RFA) microwave ablation (MWA...
Article

Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...
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Splenic biopsy

Percutaneous splenic biopsy, using either ultrasound or CT guidance, is an accurate and reliable method of acquiring splenic tissue for histopathological assessment and has been proposed as an alternative for splenectomy in selected patients. Although the procedure has been historically feared ...
Article

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study. The biopsy is gene...
Article

Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
Article

Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males. Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as: retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
Article

Peripherally inserted central catheter

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), often incorrectly tautologically termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous...
Article

Charles T Dotter

Charles T Dotter (1920-1985) is often considered the father of interventional radiology who in 1964 performed the very first peripheral angioplasty, and made many other major contributions in this field. Early life Charles Theodore Dotter was born in Boston on 14 June 1920. He graduated with a...
Article

Seldinger technique

The Seldinger technique is the mainstay of vascular and other luminal access in interventional radiology.  Uses digital subtraction angiography insertion of central venous catheters insertion of chest drains insertion of pacemaker leads or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators insertion ...
Article

Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access line. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumoth...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
Article

Cryoablation

Cryoablation refers to the use of thermal energy in the form of very low temperatures to achieve targeted destruction of tumor cells. It is an image-guided technique, currently widely employed in the management of renal 1, hepatic 2 and lung tumors 3. Historically, a rudimental form of cryosurg...
Article

Angioleiomyoma

Angioleiomyoma also known as angiomyoma or vascular leiomyoma is a benign pericytic or perivascular soft tissue tumor.   Epidemiology Angioleimyomas are rare and have been observed in a wide age range with a peak in the 4th to 6th decades of life. Generally, women are more commonly affected 1-...
Article

Quadratus femoris injection (technique)

Quadratus femoris injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate and ensure the sciatic nerve is avoided during the procedure.  CT and ultrasound can be used, with ultrasound becoming more challenging in those with larger body habitus. Indications therapeutic for ischi...
Article

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome, also known as bow hunter's syndrome, is a rare form of vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to dynamic compression of the usually-dominant vertebral artery.  Pathology It has many predisposing etiologies, but is most often due to large osteoph...
Article

Interventional procedure article structure

Interventional procedure articles necessarily require a different structure to other articles. It is important for them to have a consistent structure to maintain uniformity across the site. The suggested structure and headings (and heading size) are as follows: ================================...
Article

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) is a standardized findings communication method and clinical decision aid relevant to coronary CT angiography. The system was created by a collaboration of the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), American Colle...
Article

Juan M Taveras

Juan M Taveras (1919-2002) was an American neuroradiologist, who is remembered chiefly for his work in establishing neuroradiology as a separate subspecialty in the United States. He was the principal mover behind the founding of the American Society of Neuroradiology and its primary publicatio...
Article

Superficial cervical plexus nerve block (ultrasound)

The superficial cervical plexus nerve block is a field block indicated for procedures involving, and anesthesia of, the anterolateral neck and the skin overlying the clavicle. The superficial cervical plexus (SCP) includes the greater auricular, lesser occipital, transverse cervical, and supracl...
Article

Implantable port

Implantable ports, also known as chemoports, totally implantable central venous access ports or Port-A-Caths®, are a type of central venous catheter for patients requiring long-term venous access. They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access with some of the advantages over per...
Article

Sven-Ivar Seldinger

Sven-Ivar Seldinger (1921-1998), a Swedish radiologist, is primarily remembered for the invention of his revolutionary eponymous technique.  Early life Sven-Ivar Seldinger was born in Mora, Dalarna, Sweden on 19 April 1921 5. He attended medical school at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm ...

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