Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

205 results found
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in the visualization of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnost...
Article

Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, hemofiltration and plasma exchange. These are commonly referred to as (internal) jugular venous (IJV) catheters. Typically, the right internal jugular is used as...
Article

Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: l...
Article

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or TIPSS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient...
Article

Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
Article

MR arthrogram solution

MR arthrogram solution is a gadolinium-containing mixture injected into a joint for MR arthrography.  Terminology Fluoroscopy, ultrasound or CT guidance can be used to cannulate a joint, which is then injected with the MR arthrogram solution.  MR arthrogram solutions differ in different instit...
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. This provides localized targeted internal radiation. Brachytherapy has been...
Article

Peripherally inserted central catheter

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), often incorrectly tautologically termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous...
Article

Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
Article

Endotension

Endotension, also referred to as a type V endoleak, is not a true leak but is defined as continued expansion of the aneurysm sac greater than 5 mm, without radiographic evidence of a leak site. Pathology It is a poorly understood phenomenon but thought to be formation of a transudate due to ul...
Article

Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins, a network of many small veins found in the male spermatic cord. It is the most frequently encountered mass of the spermatic cord. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~15% of the general male population and ~40% of subferti...
Article

Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then the technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as a treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are tha...
Article

Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
Article

Transforaminal epidural steroid injection

Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI), also known as transforaminal nerve root injections or nerve root blocks, are performed for the treatment and diagnosis of radicular pain. They differ from selective nerve root blocks (SNRB), as the aim is to get an "epidural spill" and get the ...
Article

Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures. Three approaches to the epidural space exist:​ caudal epidural injection (via the sacral hiatus) interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar ...
Article

Sacroiliac joint injection

Sacroiliac joint injections can be performed using a posterior approach into the sacroiliac (SI) joint under fluoroscopic or CT guidance. It is often performed bilaterally. Indications diagnostic: relief of pain after injection of local anesthetic therapeutic: to relieve pain from degenerativ...
Article

Facet joint injection

Facet (zygapophyseal) joint injections are performed primarily for the diagnosis and differentiation of facet syndrome and radicular pain syndrome, and are one of the spinal interventional procedures. They can be performed under fluoroscopic, or CT image guidance, and cervical, thoracic or most ...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.