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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

26 results found
Article

Persistent primitive olfactory artery

A persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare variant of the proximal anterior cerebral artery 1,2. It is proposed to be more prone to aneurysms due to its sharp hairpin-like turn. Embryologically, the persistent primitive olfactory artery is the rostral division of the primitive inte...
Article

Ghost infarct core

Ghost infarct core refers to the phenomenon that CT perfusion may overestimate infarct core on admission, especially in the early time window of a stroke, by predicting lesion in areas that will not show infarct on follow-up imaging 1. This mismatch is defined as the initial infarct core - final...
Article

Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture is a commonly-performed hospital procedure in which a needle is inserted through the back to the subarachnoid space in the spinal canal often to collect some cerebrospinal fluid or inject a therapeutic agent. The procedure can be performed under imaging-guidance, e.g. fluoroscopy...
Article

Endosaccular flow disruption devices

Endosaccular flow disruption devices, also simply known as flow disruptors, are used for the treatment of either ruptured or unruptured saccular, wide-neck, usually bifurcation as well as side-wall intracranial aneurysms. Their primary function is to stop blood from flowing into the aneurysm, al...
Article

Twig-like middle cerebral artery

Twig-like middle cerebral artery or rete mirabile anomaly describes a discontinuity of a single trunk of the middle cerebral artery with several small vessels reconstituting the artery and giving it a twig-like appearance. Distally, normal vascular anatomy of the MCA branches need to be present ...
Article

Juan M Taveras

Juan M Taveras (1919-2002) was an American neuroradiologist, who is remembered chiefly for his work in establishing neuroradiology as a separate subspecialty in the United States. He was the principal mover behind the founding of the American Society of Neuroradiology and its primary publicatio...
Article

Expanded treatment in cerebral ischemia (eTICI) score

The expanded treatment in cerebral infarction (eTICI) score is a modified from the modified treatment in cerebral infarction (mTICI) and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scales. It was published by the HERMES investigators in 20191. Using modified Rankin scale (mRs) shift at 90 days a...
Article

Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR)

Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR) is increasingly performed in patients presenting with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO), especially those with a large ischemic penumbra that is likely to progress to ischemic stroke. To be successful, careful patient selection and dedicated training and eq...
Article

Basilar artery aneurysm

Basilar artery aneurysms are less common than anterior circulation aneurysms, and rupture less frequently, but their critical location necessitates careful evaluation.  Unruptured basilar artery aneurysms occurs in 3% of all intracranial aneurysms 4. Radiographic features CT may present as ...
Article

PHASES risk prediction score

The PHASES risk prediction score is a method of calculating the absolute 5-year risk of intracranial aneurysm rupture based on the data pooled from prospective cohort studies in the USA, Canada, Netherlands, Finland and Japan1. PHASES stands for: Population, Hypertension, Age, Size, Earlier suba...
Article

O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale

The O'Kelly-Marotta (OKM) grading scale is a proposed method of assessing the degree of angiographic filling and contrast stasis in the setting of intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular flow diversion. Taking into account the dynamic nature of the contrast stasis, it is designed for use ...
Article

Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischemic stroke vascular...
Article

Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post-lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anesthesiologists.  Indications craniospinal hypoten...
Article

Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESIs) are used to inject steroids in the epidural space and around the exiting nerve roots and are one of the two main spinal epidural injections; the other cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically performed in pat...
Article

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
Article

Flow-diverter stent

Flow-diverter stents are relatively new and important devices in the management of intracranial aneurysms, especially ones that are large, broad-necked or fusiform.  Complications In a multi-center study in Italy, Briganti et al. reported an overall morbidity rate of 3.7% and a mortality rate ...
Article

Onyx

OnyxTM is the trade name for a liquid embolic agent used in interventional radiology for the occlusion of blood vessels in embolization therapy. It is an elastic copolymer (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)), dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Micronised tantalum powder is also added ...
Article

Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
Article

Adrenal vein sampling

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is a procedure where blood is collected from the adrenal veins via catheter to confirm autonomous hormone production, if it is unilateral or bilateral, and to guide further treatment. Indication Adrenal vein sampling is commonly performed in primary aldosteronism, b...
Article

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome, also known as bow hunter's syndrome, is a rare form of vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to dynamic compression of the usually-dominant vertebral artery.  Pathology It has many predisposing etiologies, but is most often due to large osteoph...
Article

CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is a minimally-invasive imaging technique used to visualize the intracranial CSF cisterns using iodinated contrast medium injected into the subarachnoid space. Indications detect and localize active CSF leaks through the skull base (CSF rhinorrhea or CSF...
Article

Antonio Egas Moniz

Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) 1 was a pioneering Portuguese neurologist that is notable in radiology history for his development of cerebral angiography in 1927. He is also known as the developer of prefrontal leucotomy (now better known as a lobotomy) ​for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1...
Article

Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. This provides localized targeted internal radiation. Brachytherapy has been...
Article

Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
Article

Transforaminal epidural steroid injection

Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI), also known as transforaminal nerve root injections or nerve root blocks, are performed for the treatment and diagnosis of radicular pain. They differ from selective nerve root blocks (SNRB), as the aim is to get an "epidural spill" and get the ...

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