Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

19 results found
Article

Gastrointestinal stents

Gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly used to treat obstruction of the GI tract, most commonly due to malignancy. Types of stent esophageal stent gastric stent duodenal stent enteric stent colorectal stent History and etymology Somewhat surprisingly the word 'stent' is actually a...
Article

Z-track technique for paracentesis

The Z-track technique is used for paracentesis. It produces a non-linear track between the dermis and the peritoneum, and this serves to decrease the chance of ascitic fluid leakage through the track. Procedure Instead of directly sticking the access needle from the skin surface into the perit...
Article

Bariatric embolization

Bariatric embolization is an interventional procedure performed with a view to inducing weight-loss in the treatment of obesity. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that the procedure is well tolerated and has a good safety profile. Early studies demonstrate a mild-moderate beneficial effect....
Article

Superior rectal artery embolization

Superior rectal artery embolization is a minimally invasive endovascular technique which has a role in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and has recently re-emerged as a potential option for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoidal disease, this article will focus on the l...
Article

Esophageal varix

Esophageal varices describe dilated submucosal veins of the esophagus, and are an important portosystemic collateral pathway. They are considered distinct from gastric varices, which are less common. Epidemiology Esophageal varices are present in ~50% of patients with portal hypertension 1,2. ...
Article

Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG)

A radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is a procedure where a tube is inserted percutaneously into the stomach, principally to provide nutritional support for patients with swallowing disorders 1. Indications inadequate oral intake due to dysphagia (neurologic disorder, esophageal obstruc...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is a technique used by interventional radiologists in the treatment of gastric varices, particularly those with prominent infra-diaphragmatic portosystemic venous shunts (e.g. gastro-renal and gastro-caval shunts). The technique is mor...
Article

Abdominal paracentesis

An abdominal paracentesis (plural: paracenteses), more commonly referred to as an ascitic tap, is a procedure that can be performed to collect peritoneal fluid for analysis or as a therapeutic intervention. Indications diagnostic: especially for newly-diagnosed ascites determine etiology of a...
Article

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a procedure where a flexible feeding tube (commonly known as a PEG tube) is inserted through the abdominal wall and into the stomach. This may be placed under endoscopic or radiological guidance, in the latter, the procedure may be known as a percutan...
Article

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
Article

Esophageal stent

Esophageal stents are a treatment option in patients with esophageal strictures. It is most commonly used for symptomatic relief in those with dysphagia secondary to malignancy. The stent is typically covered in nature and inserted endoscopically or fluoroscopically. The distal esophagus is the ...
Article

Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications tha...
Article

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree and pancreatic ductal system. It can provide diagnostically-equivalent images to ERCP and and is a useful technique in high risk patients to avoid signific...
Article

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theater at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
Article

Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
Article

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image guided procedure, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections that are accessible by ultrasound study. It has several advantages and disadvantages over CT, which include: Advantages is a dynamic study, allowing greater prec...
Article

Ultrasound-guided biopsy

Ultrasound-guided biopsy is one form of image-guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist. It is the most common form of image-guided biopsy, offering convenience and real-time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be u...
Article

Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...

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