Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

289 results found
Article

Yolk sac tumor

A yolk sac tumor (YST) (or an endodermal sinus tumor) is a type of malignant germ cell tumor. Epidemiology They usually develop in infants, young children, and young women 1 Pathology They are non-epithelial tumors of germ-cell origin. Location They occur variable sites with the ovary bein...
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Clade

A clade is a taxonomic term which is used to describe organisms which form a distinct group with shared characteristics that distinguish them from other groups of organisms. For example, organisms making up genetic variants within a particular species. See also monkeypox
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Gain of function

Gain of function represents the set of laboratory techniques thanks to which it is possible to genetically modify a pathogen (for example a virus) in order to provide it with new capabilities.The field of application of the gain-of-function, in fact, is virology, in order to improve the understa...
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Birbeck granules

Birbeck granules refer to unusual rod-shaped structures specific to Langerhans cells. Their origin and function remain undetermined. Langerin is a crucial component within Birbeck granules. History and etymology Birbeck granules were first described by Michael S Birbeck in 1961 3. Related pat...
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CSF alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) has been reported as a tumor marker for some intracranial tumors with yolk sac elements, and teratoma 1. Interpretation Elevation intracranial yolk sac tumor intracranial embryonal carcinoma congenital CNS tumors with yolk sac ...
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DNA-methylation

DNA-methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA by the addition of methyl groups which in turn results in changes to numerous processes including how genes are expressed.  The specific pattern of methylation is specific to different tissues, can change over time depending on physiological ...
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Endometrial osseous metaplasia

Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a very rare pathological condition whereby there may be mature bone formation within the endometrium. This process may be a cause of menorrhagia and/or infertility. See also endocervical osseous metaplasia and cervical osseous metaplasia (may represent the sam...
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Eburnation

Eburnation describes the appearance of bone following a degenerative process in which subchondral or otherwise exposed bone acquires a non-anatomical sclerotic, microimpacted, and "polished" articular surface. This phenomenon typically arises in one of two situations: hypertrophic non-union of...
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Quadruple screening test

The quadruple screening test, also known as the quad screen, AFP Plus quad test or multiple marker screening test, is a maternal antenatal screening blood test that can be used in conjunction with other investigations e.g. ultrasound soft markers, to estimate the risk of aneuploidy 1.  This is ...
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Panniculitis

Panniculitis (plural: panniculitides 1) is a non-specific histopathological term referring to inflammation of adipose tissue. It most commonly affects subcutaneous fat, although internal forms, e.g., mesenteric panniculitis, are well-known 1,2. Clinical presentation Most panniculitides present...
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Glycosaminoglycans

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), formerly known as mucopolysaccharides, are biomolecules produced by almost all mammalian cells, as well as in many vertebrates and invertebrates, but have not been described in plants 1. They are constituent elements of proteoglycans and are found within the cells in t...
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Nestin

Nestin is an intermediate filament protein found primarily in central nervous system stem cells. It is the target of antibodies for immunohistochemistry for the assessment of neuropathological histology specimens. 
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Immunosuppression

Immunosuppression is the impairment of the body's immune system which can alter the ability of the body's defense mechanisms to prevent diseases, particularly certain infections, including opportunistic infections, and cancers.  Terminology Patients with immunosuppression are said to be immuno...
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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles, skeletal striated muscles or plainly muscles are an integral part of the locomotor system responsible for movements. The musculoskeletal system of the human body has more than 600 muscles 1 making up around 40% of the body weight. They are very heterogeneous and have different ...
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Alcian blue stain

Alcian blue stain is a histological stain utilized for the identification of extracellular matrix proteoglycans, like glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid 1, commonly in connective tissue and epithelial malignant neoplasms 2, and also Barrett esophagus, where it can highlight mucosal intestina...
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Giemsa stain

Giemsa stain is a commonly used histological stain that colors the cytoplasm blue to pink (depending on its acidity) and the nucleus blue to black 1. It serves as the diagnostic gold standard of histopathological staining of blood samples from patients with plasmodium-borne malaria, and as the b...
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Chemical article structure

Articles about chemicals, whether chemical elements or their innumerable compounds, have a unique structure and subheadings. All articles should be placed in the Pathology section. ======================================================================= The introduction should take the followin...
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Platelets

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are an essential constituent of the cellular component of blood. They play a key role in normal hemostasis. Normal platelet levels in adult patients are 150-400 x 109/L. Physiology Platelets are tiny (2-4 μm) cells that lack nuclei 1-3. They are mass prod...
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Thrombocytosis

Thrombocytosis (plural: thrombocytoses) is a general term and is defined as a rise in platelet count to over two standard deviations above the normal range. Its exact quantitative definition is variable, but generally equates to a platelet count greater than 400-450x109 cells/L.  Although there...
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Neoplasm

Neoplasms, also known as tumors, are pathological masses, caused by cells abnormally proliferating and/or not appropriately dying. Neoplasms may be either benign or malignant. Malignant neoplasms are synonymous with cancers. Benign neoplasms clear origin (unless very large) slow growth  usua...
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Flat epithelial atypia

Flat epithelial atypia is an entity that comprises any columnar cell lesion with low-grade cytologic atypia. Terminology Flat epithelial atypia was introduced in the 3rd edition of WHO Classification of Breast Tumors in 2003, to substitute terms such as clinging carcinoma monomorphous type, at...
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Columnar cell hyperplasia of the breast

Columnar cell hyperplasia is part of the spectrum of columnar cell lesions of the breast characterized by enlarged terminal ductal lobular units lined by stratified (more than two layers) columnar epithelium, cellular crowding or overlapping without atypia. It can also form tufts or mounds with...
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Columnar cell change without atypia (breast)

Columnar cell change without atypia breast lesions are characterized by enlarged terminal ductal lobular units lined by columnar epithelial cells which substitute the normal cuboid epithelial layer.  They are also associated with prominent apical cytoplasmic snouts and intraluminal secretions. ...
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Myocardial fiber disarray

Myocardial disarray, myocardial fiber disarray or cardiac myocyte disarray refers to bizarre disorganization and texture of cardiac myocyte bundles, individual cardiomyocytes and contractile elements within the sarcomeres. It is an important histological feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy wh...
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Prostatic acid phosphatase

Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) also known as prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) is an enzyme generated by prostatic glandular tissue. Usage It can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify prostatic tissue including prostatic epithelium and prostatic ducts and is usually expressed ...
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Parathyroid proliferative disease

Parathyroid proliferative disease is the collective term for a spectrum of parathyroid disorders 1: parathyroid adenoma parathyroid carcinoma parathyroid atypical adenoma: controversial entity parathyroid hyperplasia primary chief cell hyperplasia primary water-clear cell hyperplasia (rare...
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CD34

CD34 or hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 is an intercellular adhesion protein and cell surface glycoprotein and a frequently used marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelial cells. It is also expressed by many other non-hematopoietic cell types including multipotent mesenc...
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Ascitic fluid cholesterol level

Ascitic fluid cholesterol level estimation is a simple and precise test for differentiating malignant ascites from non-malignant (cirrhotic) ascites 5-9.  Pathology Ascites is the abnormal collection of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Malignant ascites comprises ~10% and is usually seconda...
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Fomites

Fomites (singular: fomes) are used in medicine to refer to inanimate porous or non-porous objects, or surfaces colonized with microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and serve as vehicles for transmitting many pathogenic microorganisms 1-3. Some examples of fomites are clothing, mobile phones, handr...
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Hypoplasia

Hypoplasia (plural: hypoplasias) is a pathological term referring to the state of a tissue or organ which at the end of its developmental process has not fully formed (cf. aplasia in which the organ/tissue does not form at all). Thus, the term hypoplasia does not tend to be used for a later (pos...
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Calponin

Calponin is an actin-binding protein regulating actin/myosin interaction in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells 1,2. It inhibits actin-activated myosin ATPase and stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. It also serves as a target in immunohistochemistry where it can be used for the identification of m...
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Desmin

Desmin is a muscle-specific protein. It is the main intermediate filament protein and a key component in the cytoskeletal network of muscle cells e.g. in the myocardium, where it is ampler than in skeletal muscle or smooth muscle. It interacts with other proteins to support the myofibrils at the...
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DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid that encodes the genetic information (genome) necessary for RNA (ribonucleic acid) transcription (transcriptome) and protein synthesis (proteome) 1. It is contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells in the form of chromatin or chromosomes 7,8. Mole...
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Tungsten

Tungsten (chemical symbol, W) is a hard refractory metallic element with remarkable resilience which forms the basis for its industrial uses. It is the metal of choice in the filaments and targets of x-ray tubes. There is no evidence that tungsten is required by the human body, although some mic...
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Bethesda classification system for thyroid fine needle aspirates

Bethesda classification system for thyroid fine needle aspirates comprises six categories of pathological reporting of thyroid FNA, with each category linked to a malignancy risk. The categories are: category I: non diagnostic category II: benign category III: atypia of undetermined significa...
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Neuron specific enolase

Neuron specific enolase (NSE) is a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. It is sometimes considered as a tumor marker.  Elevated neuron specific enolase levels have shown to occur in association with:  tumors small cell lung cancer: up to 70% of patients with small cell lu...
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PSA velocity

The PSA velocity (PSAV) is a statistically-derived measure of how the prostate specific antigen (PSA) changes over time, and has been used as a marker of how prostate malignancy progresses or regresses.  Any cancer grows over time and relative changes of tumor markers, such as PSA, would seem t...
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Smooth muscle actin

Smooth muscle actin (SMA) is a target in immunohistochemistry which is positive in cell lines which expresses actin. It is generally used to identify cells of myoepithelial origin 1. Related pathology leiomyoma perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas)
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Placode

Placode (or neural placode) refers in terms of radiology to a segment of non-neurulated neural tissue, which has had development frozen in the neural plate stage. A placode can be found in all open spinal dysraphisms and in some closed spinal dysraphisms. In the former, the placode is exposed to...
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Antinuclear antibody

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a heterogenous class of autoantibodies raised against antigens present in the cell nucleus, including nucleic acids themselves and the enzymes involved in their processing. Under indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy, four major ANA staining patterns are ...
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Aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL)

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) is a histological entity denoting a chronic inflammatory response to metal particles (cobalt and chromium ions) from a metal-on-metal prosthesis. The finding falls on the spectrum of adverse reactions to metal debris. Pathology I...
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Streptococcus anginosus group

The Streptococcus anginosus group (also part of the Streptococcus milleri group) comprise a subgroup of viridans streptococci which are gram-positive, catalase-negative bacteria. There are three distinct main streptococcal species and several subspecies: S. anginosus: has two subspecies S. an...
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Intracranial aneurysm (overview)

Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are aneurysms of the intracranial arteries. The most common morphologic type is the saccular aneurysm. Pathology There is not a universal classification for the types of intracranial aneurysms, resulting in a heterogeneous mix of terms ba...
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Staghorn pattern of vascularity

The staghorn pattern of vascularity is a pathological term describing a pattern of vascularity seen on low-power light microscopy. It is defined by multiple thin-walled, sharply-branched and jagged vessels having an "antler-like" or "staghorn-like" appearance 1. It is classically described with...
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Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine

The bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only vaccine available for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and despite its global use for 90 years, with proven efficacy and a good safety record, has well-known limitations. It provides only limited protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. The vac...
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Fecal immunochemical test

A fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is a test for human hemoglobin in stool as a screening tool for colorectal carcinoma. It is considered a better test than the traditional guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) which cannot distinguish human blood from food-derived sources.  Technical backgroun...
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Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a heterogenous class of IgG autoantibodies raised against the cellular contents of neutrophils, monocytes and endothelial cells 1. Under indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy, three ANCA staining patterns are observed, based on the varying...
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Granuloma

Granulomas are organized conglomerates of histiocytes, a specialized white blood cell 1. They form by the process of granulomatous inflammation, which is a specific type of chronic inflammation that occurs following cellular injury as a response to the mediators that are released. A broad range ...
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Lepidic growth

Lepidic growth is a pathological term referring to a pattern of cell proliferation along the lining of the alveolar structures of the lung as is seen in a subset of lung tumors 1. History and etymology ‘lepidic’ was coined by the English pathologist John George Adam (1862-1926) whilst at McGil...
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Nucleic acids

The nucleic acids are the collective term for the two main macromolecular nucleotide polymers: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) Nucleotides, the constituent units of nucleic acids, are made up of simpler molecules called nucleosides and inorganic phosphate (H3PO4). Each nucl...
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Hematoxylin and eosin stain

The combined hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is the most widely used stain in histology and histopathology. Hematoxylin has an intense purple-blue hue and binds to nucleic acids. Eosin has a pink hue and non-specifically stains proteins. These two stains in combination are vital for distinguis...
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Gram stain

The Gram stain (or Gram method) is a key microbiological method for staining bacteria. The process relies upon two stains, the first, a complex of crystal violet and iodine, and the second, safranin, a red counterstain. The staining procedure subdivides bacteria into Gram-positive and Gram-negat...
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Hematinics

The hematinics are nutrients that are required by the body for erythropoiesis, i.e. the production of red blood cells 1,2. List of hematinics Clinically, the most important hematinics are vitamin B12, iron and folic acid because deficiency states of these three substances are much more common ...
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Red blood cells

Red blood cells (RBCs), also known as erythrocytes (or rarely haematids), are cells that carry oxygen by means of hemoglobin, and form part of the cellular component of blood as it circulates throughout the body. These extremely common cells are typically made in the bone marrow in a process cal...
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Corpora amylacea

The corpora amylacea ("bodies of starch") are a histologic finding, encountered more frequently in the brain, prostate, lung, and uterus. The corpora amylacea are thought to be sulfated glycosaminoglycans 1. Some have described it as a localized amyloidosis 2.  In the prostate they appear to ar...
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Inflammatory markers

The inflammatory markers are a disparate set of biomarkers that are used clinically to assess a patient for: presence/absence of an active inflammatory disease process activity of a known disease Possible disease processes may include infective, malignant and autoimmune diseases, although it ...
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Syndemic

A syndemic is a relatively novel concept in epidemiology, referring to the simultaneous occurrence and synergy of two or more diseases or conditions in a large population in a social context that aggravates them. A syndemic is usually confined to a certain geographical area at a certain time an...
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Transitional meningioma

Transitional meningiomas are also known as mixed meningiomas because they have components of meningothelial and fibrous subtypes of meningiomas. Their epidemiology, clinical aspects, radiographic characteristics, treatment, prognosis, and differential diagnosis are in the main article (see meni...
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Metachronous (pathology)

The term metachronous is used in oncology to refer to two (or more) independent primary malignancies, when the second (or third, etc.) malignancy arose more than six months after the diagnosis of the first malignancy 1,2. These may be in the same, or in different, organs. See also synchronous ...
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Synchronous (pathology)

The term synchronous is used in oncology to refer to two (or more) independent primary malignancies, when the second (or third, etc.) malignancy arose within six months of the diagnosis of the first malignancy 1,2. These may be in the same, or in different, organs. See also metachronous multi...
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Endemic

The epidemiological term endemic is used for any condition that persists within a particular community/locale without the need for external input of new disease, i.e. the disease in question has attained a steady-state in the affected population 1. For this to happen the basic reproductive numbe...
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Epidemic

The epidemiological term, epidemic is defined for a condition that is normally rare in a population but in a short space of time has become widespread 1. It may refer to both infectious diseases (for example, Zika virus epidemic in Brazil 6) but also other conditions, e.g. the obesity epidemic. ...
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Pandemic

The epidemiological term, pandemic is applied to an outbreak of disease that has spread across the globe, or in other words, an epidemic that has crossed many regions, borders and multiple continents. Some of the largest pandemics in history include the bubonic plague in the 14th century and the...
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Host (infectious diseases)

A host in the context of infectious disease refers to an animal or plant that acts as a biological refuge in which another - often parasitic - organism may dwell. The host usually provides shelter or nourishment to the other organism, which may use the host to partially/completely sexually devel...
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Basic reproduction number

The basic reproduction number (R0), also known as just the reproductive number, basic reproductive number, basic reproductive ratio, reproduction number, R nought or R zero, is a term in epidemiology for the average number of cases in a susceptible population that will be generated by an existin...
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Incubation period

The epidemiological term, the incubation period (IP) is the time between exposure to something pathogenic (including radiation, microbes or chemicals) and when the pathology first becomes apparent by symptoms. Some authors use the terms latent period and incubation period to mean the same period...
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Vector (infectious disease)

A vector, (also known as a biological vector) in the context of infectious diseases, is a carrier, in particular an animal, and most commonly an arthropod, that transmits the infective entity from one host to another 1. Often the infective agent undergoes some change as part of its normal life c...
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Congestion

Congestion is a pathological term referring to reduced blood flow out from tissues, which may be localized or systemic 1. Clinical presentation Congestion commonly presents with increased swelling and edema of tissues where blood flow is reduced. With prolonged congestion, the tissues may beco...
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Zoonosis

A zoonosis (plural: zoonoses), also known as a zoonotic disease, is an infectious disease in humans (the host) for which another vertebrate animal can be the vector. Some zoonoses have an additional vector besides the vertebrate e.g. R. rickettsii is carried by ticks on mammals. Viruses, bacteri...
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Angiotensin converting enzyme

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which assists in blood pressure control by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. Normal individuals may have a small volume of the angiotensin converting enzyme circulating in their blood. M...
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Hamartoma

A hamartoma (plural: hamartomas or hamartomata) is a benign tumor-like malformation that consists of a collection of architecturally disorganized cells located in an area of the body where the cells are normally found. It is often due to abnormal development. In radiology, hamartomas often mimi...
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Opportunistic infection

Opportunistic infections (OI) are caused by micro-organisms (sometimes called opportunists) that under normal circumstances do not cause infections, but in certain clinical contexts, most commonly immunosuppression, may become pathogenic 1.
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Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an immunoglobulin initially described in association with rheumatoid arthritis. It is an IgM antibody against the FC portion of the IgG antibodies. Ongoing research has identified a group of related immunoglobulins, classed as rheumatoid factors (RFs) and despite extens...
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Embolism

Embolism describes intravascular material that is carried from its original location downstream to a distant area. The most common type of embolism is that which is derived from a thrombus, such as in the case of pulmonary embolism or stroke. Types of embolism thromboembolism gas embolism am...
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Starling forces

Starling forces describe the movement of fluids between the vasculature and interstitial spaces. Fluid movement is determined by the balance of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients 1. Starling forces Net pressure = [ (Pc - Pi) - (pc - pi) ] where: Pc = hydrostatic pressure of the capil...
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Edema

Edema is the accumulation of fluid in tissues. It is caused by an imbalance between forces holding fluids in the vasculature and tissues 1. Fluids are normally held in a steady state between tissues and vasculature by homeostasis between these forces (Starling equation) 2: capillary hydrostatic...
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Inflammation (chronic)

Chronic inflammation is a prolonged inflammatory response whereby inflammation, injury and repair coexist. It commonly occurs over a period of weeks to months and can follow an acute inflammatory response or begin independently in a slow, insidious manner.  Etiology prolonged infection prolon...
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Inflammation (acute)

Inflammation is the response of tissues to infection and damage. In the acute phase, it functions to bring cells and molecules to the site of infection or damage to elicit a protective response1.  The acute inflammatory response is characterized by three phases: Dilation of blood vessels, whic...
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Pathology curriculum

The pathology curriculum is one of our curriculum modules and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core pathology knowledge for radiologists and other imaging professionals: general pathology cellular pathology ​pathologic classification systemic pathology pathology of the...
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Human coronavirus

The human coronaviruses (hCoVs), members of the family Coronaviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses that affect humans, mammals and birds, causing both acute and chronic illnesses. Four of the seven known human coronaviruses usually cause a mild coryzal illness only, these are HKU1, NL63, OC43, and...
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Systemic pathology

The systemic pathology article aims to outline knowledge of systemic pathological conditions important for medical imaging specialists. Systemic pathology pathology of the vascular system cardiac pathology pathology of the hematological and lymphatic systems pathology of the lung and pleura...
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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (plural: apoptoses), also known as programmed cell death (PCD) is a term to describe the process of regulated cell death. This is in contrast to necrosis, which is unregulated cell death often secondary to external factors 1. Apoptosis occurs in cells which are destined to die by acti...
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Hypertrophy

Hypertrophy is a term describing an increase in the size of cells. It occurs due to an increase in synthesis of intracellular proteins and other cellular components, often in response to an invoking stimulus/stress, which will result in an increase in the size of an organ. This is in contrast t...
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Atrophy

Atrophy is a reduction in the size of an organ/tissue. Microscopically this is a reduction in cell size/volume caused by a reduction in protein synthesis and/or increased protein degradation 1. Atrophy may be physiologic or pathological. Physiological atrophy is commonly seen in the normal dev...
Article

Necrosis

Necrosis (plural: necroses) is defined as unregulated cell death. This is in contrast to apoptosis, which is a form of regulated, or programmed, cell death 1.  Necrosis is the most common type of cell death observed in injury/disease. It occurs when cellular damage is so severe that lysosomal e...
Article

Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells of an organ/tissue, often secondary to a stimulus or stress. This process can be contrasted with hypertrophy, an increase in the size of cells, however these processes frequently co-occur 1. Hyperplasia occurs due to stimulation by growth factor...
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Lymph

Lymph (also known as lymphatic fluid) is the name given to the interstitial fluid once it has passed into the lymphatic vessels. Formation As blood passes through capillary beds a significant proportion of the plasma is filtered into the extracellular space. Most of this filtered tissue fluid ...
Article

Eosinophilia

Eosinophilia is defined as an abnormally high level of eosinophils in the blood, this is usually defined as >500 cells/μL (normal eosinophil level: <450 cells/μL). Hypereosinophilia is defined as >1500 cells/μL and is usually due to hematological malignancy 1,2. This article includes recommenda...
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WHO classification of eye tumors

The World Health Organizatiοn (WHO) classification of eye tumors is a widely used pathologic classification system of neoplasms of the orbit. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2018 and is reflected in the article below 1. Classification Tumors of...
Article

Hurthle cell

Hurthle cells are a type of oncocyte arising from thyroid follicular epithelial cells. Terminology The term Hurthle cell is now officially discouraged as the cells discovered by Hurthle were actually parafollicular C cells 5. Pathology Under microscopy, Hurthle cells are larger than typical ...
Article

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a screening test that examines the level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in a pregnant woman. AFP is produced by both the yolk sac and foetal liver during pregnancy. Indications Ideally, all pregnant women should undergo the screening test between 15-20 w...
Article

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (Hb) is the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells. Structure Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein molecule composed of four subunits. Each subunit consists of an iron-containing cyclic heme component linked to a polypeptide chain, the polypeptides are together known as globin. E...
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Blood

Blood is a connective tissue usually found in a liquid phase; it comprises a fluid component called plasma (about 55% of the total volume), in which lies the cellular component, comprising several cell lineages, primarily the white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. In an average adult ...

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