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9 results found

Endometrial osseous metaplasia

Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a very rare pathological condition whereby there may be mature bone formation within the endometrium. This process may be a cause of menorrhagia and/or infertility. See also endocervical osseous metaplasia and cervical osseous metaplasia (may represent the sam...

Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...


A fistula (plural: fistulae or fistulas) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs. For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individu...

CA 27-29

CA 27-29 is a tumor marker and is a soluble form of glycoprotein MUC1. It may be elevated in patients with breast cancer. Tumors of the colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver may also raise CA 27-29 levels. Certain non-malignant conditions are also associated with its ...


CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes for the p16 protein, involved in the CDK4/6–RB1 cell-cycle pathway 5.  p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker indicating expression of the cell cycle protein, which is upregulated by human papillomavi...

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumors. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and specificity than ...

WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...


CA-125 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein found on the surface of Müllerian and celomic epithelial-derived cell types and is the best known tumor marker for epithelial ovarian cancer 6. Importantly, it may also be elevated in several other conditions (see differential diagnosis section belo...

Psammoma bodies

Psammoma bodies are round microscopic calcific collections. It is a form of dystrophic calcification. Necrotic cells form the focus for surrounding calcific deposition. They have a lamellated concentric calcified structure, sometimes large enough to be seen on CT.  Psammoma bodies are found in ...

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