Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

21 results found
Article

Eburnation

Eburnation describes the appearance of bone following a degenerative process in which subchondral or otherwise exposed bone acquires a non-anatomical sclerotic, microimpacted, and "polished" articular surface. This phenomenon typically arises in one of two situations: hypertrophic non-union of...
Article

Panniculitis

Panniculitis (plural: panniculitides 1) is a non-specific histopathological term referring to inflammation of adipose tissue. It most commonly affects subcutaneous fat, although internal forms, e.g., mesenteric panniculitis, are well-known 1,2. Clinical presentation Most panniculitides present...
Article

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles, skeletal striated muscles or plainly muscles are an integral part of the locomotor system responsible for movements. The musculoskeletal system of the human body has more than 600 muscles 1 making up around 40% of the body weight. They are very heterogeneous and have different ...
Article

Desmin

Desmin is a muscle-specific protein. It is the main intermediate filament protein and a key component in the cytoskeletal network of muscle cells e.g. in the myocardium, where it is ampler than in skeletal muscle or smooth muscle. It interacts with other proteins to support the myofibrils at the...
Article

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL)

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) is a histological entity denoting a chronic inflammatory response to metal particles (cobalt and chromium ions) from a metal-on-metal prosthesis. The finding falls on the spectrum of adverse reactions to metal debris. Pathology I...
Article

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a heterogenous class of IgG autoantibodies raised against the cellular contents of neutrophils, monocytes and endothelial cells 1. Under indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy, three ANCA staining patterns are observed, based on the varying...
Article

Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an immunoglobulin initially described in association with rheumatoid arthritis. It is an IgM antibody against the FC portion of the IgG antibodies. Ongoing research has identified a group of related immunoglobulins, classed as rheumatoid factors (RFs) and despite extens...
Article

Edema

Edema is the accumulation of fluid in tissues. It is caused by an imbalance between forces holding fluids in the vasculature and tissues 1. Fluids are normally held in a steady state between tissues and vasculature by homeostasis between these forces (Starling equation) 2: capillary hydrostatic...
Article

Vitamin D deficiency (overview)

Vitamin D deficiency (also known as hypovitaminosis D) is common, and untreated, may result in serious sequelae. Traditionally its pathological manifestations have been regarded through the lens of skeletal maturity: rickets in children osteomalacia in adults However it has become increasingl...
Article

Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
Article

Creatine kinase

Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), is a key enzyme, for energy production in mitochondria and muscle tissues. It is important as a diagnostic assay in clinical practice, primarily because inflamed/injured muscle releases creatine kinase into the circulation 1. Phy...
Article

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme for the formation of the structure protein collagen, particularly creating cross-linking of collagen fibers which greatly increases its tensile strength. It also acts as an antioxidant. Vitamin C is one of the hematinics. H...
Article

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (calciferol) is used to describe a group of five fat-soluble secosteroid vitamins required for the homeostasis of serum calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D exists in two main forms (vitamers) in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).  Vitamin D3 acts by re...
Article

Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to the process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium rep...
Article

Fibromatosis

Fibromatosis  (plural: fibromatoses) refers to a wide range of soft tissue lesions that share an underlying histopathologic pattern of fibrous tissue proliferation. They can occur in a variety of anatomic sites (e.g. musculoskeletal, abdominopelvic, breast, etc.) and also vary in their behavior,...
Article

Fracture healing

Fracture healing occurs naturally after traumatic bony disruption. This process begins with hemorrhage and progresses through three stages: inflammatory reparative remodeling This process can be supported by various treatment options with immobilization a mainstay; inappropriate treatment ma...
Article

Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
Article

Polyostotic

Polyostotic, less commonly polystotic, is a term used to describe a condition involving multiple bones. Examples of conditions that can be polyostotic include Paget disease of the bone, fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic monomelic
Article

Monomelic

Monomelic is typically used to refer to a condition that is confined to only one limb. Examples of conditions that can be monomelic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
Article

Monostotic

Monostotic is typically used to refer to a condition that involves only one bone. Examples of conditions that can be monostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also polyostotic monomelic
Article

Vitamin A

Vitamin A are a group of fat-soluble vitamers (the retinoids) required for many physiological functions, mainly vision, reproduction and epithelial maintenance. In the retina, a specific retinoid, 11-cis-retinal, is formed by photoisomerisation within the rods and cones. The retinoids are hemati...

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