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Quadruple screening test

The quadruple screening test, also known as the quad screen, AFP Plus quad test or multiple marker screening test, is a maternal antenatal screening blood test that can be used in conjunction with other investigations e.g. ultrasound soft markers, to estimate the risk of aneuploidy 1.  This is ...

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a screening test that examines the level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in a pregnant woman. AFP is produced by both the yolk sac and foetal liver during pregnancy. Indications Ideally, all pregnant women should undergo the screening test between 15-20 w...


Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an important plasma protein synthesized by the yolk sac and fetal liver. In adults, its main utility is as a tumor marker, primarily for hepatocellular carcinoma or teratoma. Functionally it is the fetal homologue of albumin i.e. it acts as a major carrier protein in t...

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 (folate or folic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex, vital for the synthesis of several amino acids, the purines adenosine and guanine and the pyrimidine thymine (three of the four nucleotide bases and hence critical for the synthesis of nucleic acids). T...

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a protein found in the maternal circulation and is produced by the placenta. The PAPP-A gene has been assigned to human chromosome 9q33.1 and contains 22 exons 5. PAPP-A values tend to rise exponentially during pregnancy and the reference range d...

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