Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

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Mean glandular dose

The mean glandular dose (MGD) is an estimate of the average absorbed dose to the glandular tissues of a breast during mammography. It is measured in Gray (Gy). The most commonly accepted method of calculating the mean glandular dose is described by Dance et al (2000):                          ...

Ultrasound elastography

Ultrasound elastography, also called as sono-elastography, is a modern evolutionary method of sonographic imaging. Techniques include shear wave elastography (also known as transient elastography) and strain elastography (also known as static or compression elastography). These techniques utiliz...


Lymphoscintigraphy is a nuclear medicine technique to visualize regional lymphatic drainage, especially for mapping sentinel lymph nodes, from a site of radiopharmaceutical injection. Radiopharmaceutical Colloidal agents are used as these particles enter lymphatic channels and migrate to lymph...

Step-and-shoot tomosynthesis (breast)

Step-and-shoot is a technology of image acquisition in digital breast tomosynthesis characterized by stop scanning at every single angle during images acquisition. Step-and-shoot technology allows advantages in microcalcifications conspicuity, spatial resolution, signal-to-noise Ratio improveme...

Flying focus tomosynthesis

Flying focus is a technology of image acquisition in digital breast tomosynthesis characterized by a continuous sweep during shooting. Sharpness in digital systems is determined by the modulation transfer function (MTF), which determine contrast transfer as a function of spatial frequency. Sin...

Contrast-enhanced mammography

There are 2 types of contrast-enhanced mammography examination – temporal subtraction and dual-energy.  Initial work in the early 2000s used temporal subtraction, but artefacts due to patient movement during prolonged compression limited its diagnostic usefulness. Travieso et al produced a usef...

Automated full-field volumetric ultrasound

An automatic full-field volumetric breast ultrasound scanner (AFFBUS) is a developing technology which was initiated to overcome the drawback of dense breast and to get a three-dimensional view of the breast.  Components scan station view station Scan station Automatic ultrasound imaging ac...


Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast, and the resultant images are known as mammograms. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of ...

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