Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

46 results found
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SPACE (MRI sequence)

The SPACE MRI sequence, is a spin echo type MRI sequence, which creates high spatial resolution three-dimensional datasets. SPACE is an abbreviation for Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip angle Evolution. The sequence was developed by Siemens. The SPACE...
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Salt and pepper noise (MRI artifact)

Salt and pepper noise, also known as impulse noise, has been used to describe the characteristic appearance of a certain artifact seen on MRI. The artifact looks like innumerable black and white pixels throughout the image. Smoothing filters are algorithms designed to diminish the noise whilst ...
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Taurine

Taurine is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.4 ppm chemical shift. It is elevated in medulloblastomas.
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Phase-sensitive inversion recovery

Phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR), also known as phase-corrected inversion recovery (PCIR), refers to an inversion recovery MRI pulse sequence that accounts for the positive and negative polarities and preserves the information of tissue magnetization during the recovery from the initial...
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Laser interstitial thermal therapy

Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) or focal laser ablation is a surgical technique for selective ablation of a lesion or tissue using laser-generated heat. Compared to other minimally invasive techniques such as radiofrequency, microwave, or cryoablation, lasers are able to create a more ...
Article

MR cerebral venography

MR cerebral venography (MRV) is an MRI examination of the head with either contrast-enhanced or non-contrast sequences to assess patency of the dural venous sinuses and cerebral veins.  NB: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary d...
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James Ambrose

James "Jamie" Ambrose (1923-2006) was a neuroradiologist and co-developer of the first CT scanner with physicist Godfrey Hounsfield. Together they performed the first ever CT on a living human patient in 1971 1. Early life James Abraham Edward Ambrose was born on 5 April 1923 in Pretoria, Sout...
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Chemical exchange saturation transfer

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a novel molecular MR technique that enables imaging certain compounds at concentrations that are too low to impact the contrast of standard MR imaging and too low to directly be detected in MRS at typical water imaging resolution 1. Amide ...
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Axial plane for imaging of the brain

A consistent axial plane for imaging of the brain needs to be chosen to allow for reproducible image acquisition and comparison. Unlike the sagittal plane, which is intrinsically defined by our inherent left-right plane of symmetry, axial and coronal planes need to be agreed upon and over the ye...
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Computer vision syndrome

Computer vision syndrome is a condition that affects primarily workers who use computers (including tablets and other devices with computer screens) many hours a day with symptoms that can include blurred vision, eye strain, and headache. Epidemiology Computer vision syndrome is a growing phen...
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F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most common PET radiotracer. Structure The radiopharmaceutical consists of the fluorine-18 radionuclide substituting the hydroxyl group at the C-2 position of glucose. The IUPAC chemical name is 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoroglucose. Production F-18 fluoride ion ...
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Brain morphometry

Brain morphometry is the act of measuring various dimensions (typically volume) of parts of the brain. Historically, this was only performed post-mortem.   In modern practice, this is performed in vivo using MRI. A volumetric scan of the brain (typically T1 weighted) is obtained and segmented i...
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MR vessel wall imaging

MR vessel wall imaging refers to MRI techniques used to evaluate for disease within the walls of arteries, beyond the luminal abnormalities depicted on angiographic imaging. This can be used anywhere in the body but is particularly important intracranially in distinguishing between various cause...
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Time to peak (TTP)

Time-to-peak (TTP) is the time at which contrast concentration reaches its maximum. For example, for a particular dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging acquisition in which images are acquired every 1.5 seconds, possible TTP values could include 20.0 seconds, 21.5 seconds, 23.0 seconds, ...
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Ultrahigh field MRI

Ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging refers to imaging done on any MRI scanner with a main magnetic field (B0) strength of 7 tesla or greater. Until recently purely a research tool, following the introduction of the first 7 T clinical scanner in 2017, there are now a slowly increasin...
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Air bubble artifact

The air bubble artifact on CT is due to the presence of abnormal gas in the oil coolant which surrounds the x-ray tube. The artifact manifests as subtle low density, which has only been described on brain scans. Cause The x-ray tube in a CT scanner is prevented from overheating by a heat excha...
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FLAIR vascular hyperintensities

FLAIR vascular hyperintensities are hyperintensities encountered on FLAIR sequences within subarachnoid arteries related to impaired vascular hemodynamics 1,2. They are usually seen in the setting of acute ischemic stroke and represent slow retrograde flow through collaterals (and not thrombus) ...
Article

Arterial spin labeling MR perfusion

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR perfusion is an MR perfusion technique which does not require intravenous administration of contrast (unlike DSC perfusion and DCE perfusion). Instead, it exploits the ability of MRI to magnetically label arterial blood below the imaging slab. The parameter most ...
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Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion, sometimes also referred to as permeability MRI, is one of the main MRI perfusion techniques which calculates perfusion parameters by evaluating T1 shortening induced by a gadolinium-based contrast bolus passing through tissue. The most commonly calcu...
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Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion

Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion is one of the most frequently used techniques for MRI perfusion, and relies on the susceptibility induced signal loss on T2*-weighted sequences which results from a bolus of gadolinium-based contrast passing through a capillary bed. The most com...
Article

Cerebral blood flow (CBF)

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBF is defined as the volume of blood passing through a given amount of brain tissue per unit of time, most commonly milliliters of blood per minute per 100 g of brain tissue 1. ...
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Mean transit time (MTT)

Mean transit time (MTT) corresponds to the average time, in seconds, that red blood cells spend within a determinate volume of capillary circulation. It is assessed as part of the CT perfusion protocol and MR perfusion. Mean transit time is calculated by dividing cerebral blood volume (CBV) by ...
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CSF flow studies

CSF flow studies are performed using a variety of MRI techniques and are able to qualitatively assess and quantify pulsatile CSF flow. The most common technique used is time-resolved 2D phase-contrast MRI with velocity encoding.  Note, when referring to CSF flow in the context of imaging we are...
Article

Double inversion recovery sequence

Double inversion recovery (DIR) is an inversion recovery MRI pulse sequence that uses two different inversion pulses. The technique can be used to suppress signal from two different tissues or to suppress signal that moved between the two pulses. In the first instance, used in neuroimaging, two...
Article

MR perfusion weighted imaging

Perfusion weighted imaging is a term used to denote a variety of MRI techniques able to give insights into the perfusion of tissues by blood.  There are three techniques in wide use to derive one or more perfusion values:  ​techniques ​dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion dynam...
Article

T2 washout

T2 washout is a phenomenon encountered on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) which results in DWI images (e.g. b = 1000) appearing normal despite abnormal ADC maps.  For the phenomenon to occur a particular combination of ADC and T2 signal intensity is required: increased T2 signal facilitated ...
Article

Lactate peak

Lactate is one of the more important compounds assessed on MR spectroscopy, and resonates at 1.3 ppm chemical shift, with a characteristic double peak at long TEs. Lactate is, however, superimposed on the lipid band. Using an intermediate TE (e.g. 144 ms) will invert only lactate, allowing it t...
Article

Lipids peak

Lipids are a collection of related compounds examined in MR spectroscopy. They resonates at 1.3 ppm chemical shift, and are markers of severe tissue damage with liberation of membrane lipids, as is seen in cerebral infarction or cerebral abscesses. It is also encountered in cerebral metastases a...
Article

N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak

N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is one of the more important compounds assessed on MR spectroscopy, and resonates at 2.0 ppm chemical shift (its concentration in healthy adults is 8-10 mM) 1. The synthesis of NAA, adenosine diphosphate-dependent, occurs in the neuronal mitochondria 2. NAA is the acetyl...
Article

Glutamine-Glutamate peak

Glutamate-Glutamine (Glx) peak is one of the regions assessed on MR spectroscopy, and resonates between 2.2 and 2.4 ppm chemical shift. It overlaps with the GABA peak and cannot be routinely separated from each other. The concentration of these two brain metabolites increases in hepatic and hypo...
Article

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) peak

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), produced by the decarboxylation of glutamate 4, is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system 1 and as such, is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy.  It is present in the human brain at a concentration of about 1 mM, a who...
Article

Creatine peak

Creatine is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.0 ppm chemical shift (with a second usually smaller peak at 3.95 ppm 2). It is found in metabolically active tissues (brain, muscle, heart), where it is important in the storage and transfer of energy. It tends to b...
Article

Diffusion kurtosis imaging

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced neuroimaging modality which is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging by estimating the kurtosis (skewed distribution) of water diffusion based on a probability distribution function. It provides a high order diffusion of water distribution and a...
Article

Relaxometry

Relaxometry is measurement of relaxation times from MR images. T1, T2 and T2* can be estimated using the appropriate pulse sequence and parameters. T2 relaxometry has found useful in quantitating signal changes on T2-weighted images as in evaluating mesial temporal sclerosis. Details T2 relaxo...
Article

Negative enhancement integral

The negative enhancement integral in MR perfusion is used to calculate the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV).  It represents the area described by the baseline and the signal loss due to passage of contrast bolus in tissue. 
Article

Thallium-201 scintigraphy

Thallium-201 (Tl-201) is a radiopharmaceutical used for scintigraphy, primarily of the myocardium. The element thallium is treated by the body as an analog of potassium; it is produced in a cyclotron by bombarding thallium-203 with protons. Characteristics thallium is a monovalent cation usua...
Article

Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that uses anisotropic diffusion to estimate the axonal (white matter) organization of the brain. Fiber tractography (FT) is a 3D reconstruction technique to assess neural tracts using data collected by diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion-weigh...
Article

Hunter's angle

Hunter's angle (HA) is a term coined from a neurosurgeon, C Hunter Shelden, at Huntington Medical Research Institutes. He placed his comb on the spectrum at approximately a 45° angle and connected several of the peaks. If the angle and peaks roughly corresponded to the 45° angle, the curve was c...
Article

Susceptibility weighted imaging

Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is an MRI sequence that is particularly sensitive to compounds which distort the local magnetic field and as such make it useful in detecting blood products, calcium, etc. Physics SWI is a 3D high-spatial-resolution fully velocity corrected gradient-echo M...
Article

Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute ischemic stroke

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a commonly performed MRI sequence for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke and is very sensitive in the detection of small and early infarcts. Conventional MRI sequences (T1WI, T2WI) may not demonstrate an infarct for 6 hours, and small infarcts may be hard...
Article

Myo-inositol peak

Myo-inositol is one of the compounds images with MR spectroscopy (MRS) at both 1.5 T and 3 T and is seen to resonate at 3.5 ppm chemical shift (right of the choline peak).  Myo-inositol is a precursor of both phosphatidylinositol (the major inositol-containing phospholipid) and phosphatidylinos...
Article

Functional MRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to obtain functional information by visualizing cortical activity. fMRI detects subtle alteration in blood flow in response to stimuli or actions. It is used in two broad ways: clinical practice typically in presurgical patients ...
Article

T2 shine through

T2 shine-through refers to high signal on DWI images that is not due to restricted diffusion, but rather to high T2 signal which 'shines through' to the DWI image. T2 shine through occurs because of long T2 decay time in some normal tissue. This is most often seen with subacute infarctions due ...
Article

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), also known as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, occurs almost exclusively in patients with renal impairment and is associated with administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used in MRI.  The American College of Radiology (ACR) has divided ga...
Article

MR spectroscopy

The technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (usually shortened to MR spectroscopy or MRS) allows tissue to be interrogated for the presence and concentration of various metabolites. Grossman and Yousem said "If you need this to help you, go back to page 1; everything except Canavan (disease...
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BOLD imaging

Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging is the standard technique used to generate images in functional MRI (fMRI) studies, and relies on regional differences in cerebral blood flow to delineate regional activity.  Blood flow in the brain is highly locally controlled in response to oxy...

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