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13 results found

CT chest abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the trunk covering the chest,  abdomen and pelvis. It is one of the most common CT examinations conducted in routine and emergencies. It can be combined with a CT angiogram. Note: This article aims to frame a genera...

Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography

Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (occasionally abbreviated as ce-VUS) is a relatively novel contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic technique utilizing microbubbles to detect vesicoureteral reflux.  Indications Suspected or confirmed vesicoureteral reflux is currently the primary indication ...

Prostate MRI protocol

Prostate MRI has become an increasingly frequent examination faced in daily radiological practice and is usually acquired as either multiparametric or biparametric MRI of the prostate. This article aims to outline the concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the prostate. Recommendatio...

Renal intraparenchymal acceleration time

Renal intraparenchymal acceleration time is a parameter used in assessing renal arterial stenosis on Doppler ultrasound. It is the time taken from the start of systole to peak systole.  normal range: a value of usually <0.07 seconds (<70 ms) is taken as being within normal limits 1


Pseudoenhancement is an artifact encountered with contrast-enhanced CT, whereby the calculated density of a lesion is inaccurately increased. This phenomenon is most often problematic during evaluation of renal cysts by CT. On CT, it can be challenging to distinguish cystic versus solid renal l...

Citrate peak

Citrate is a compound examined in MR spectroscopy in the setting of possible prostate carcinoma. Citrate resonates at 2.6 ppm and is decreased in prostate cancer.  For more information go to: MR spectroscopy in prostate cancer

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents consisting of microbubbles/nanobubbles of gas. Usecases liver hepatic metastasis cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma cholangiocarcinoma hepatocellular carcinoma hepatic adenoma focal nodular hyperpl...

Twinkling artifact

Twinkling artifact is seen with color flow Doppler ultrasound 1. It occurs as a focus of alternating colors on Doppler signal behind a reflective object (such as a calculus), which gives the appearance of turbulent blood flow 2. It appears with or without an associated color comet tail artifact ...

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate (Na+ 99mTc O4-) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Technetium (99mTc) has eight oxidation states 6, from -1 to +7; specifically, the oxidation state of technetium in the pertechnetate anion (99mTcO4-) is +7....

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Due to favorable energy and dosimetric characteristics, MAG3 radiolabeled with technetium has replaced the iodide-131 Hippuran for the study of renal function (tubular secretion physiology...

Vicarious contrast media excretion

Vicarious contrast media excretion (VCME) refers to the excretion of intravascularly-administered water-soluble iodinated contrast media in a way other than via normal renal excretion. Epidemiology The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulti...

Comet tail artifact

The comet tail artifact is a grey scale ultrasound finding seen when small calcific / crystalline / highly reflective objects are interrogated and is believed to be a special form of reverberation artifact. It is similar to the color comet tail artifact and is seen in similar situations, althou...

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), also known as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, occurs almost exclusively in patients with renal impairment and is associated with administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used in MRI.  The American College of Radiology (ACR) has divided ga...

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