Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

22 results found
Article

Nasal bones (lateral view)

The lateral nasal bones view is a nonangled lateral radiograph showcasing two small oblong bones situated side by side, together forming the nasal ridge. Indications This view is often primarily used in assessing various nasal bone fractures in the trauma setting. Depending on the department, ...
Article

CT brain perfusion (protocol)

CT perfusion of the brain is a dynamic, contrast-enhanced study utilized in patients with suspected stroke to differentiate salvageable ischemic brain tissue (i.e. penumbra) from damaged infarcted brain. NB: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The spe...
Article

Neuroimaging (dual-energy CT)

Dual-energy CT has a number of clinical applications in neuroimaging particularly in the realm of material composition and virtual non-contrast imaging. Differentiation of hemorrhage from iodinated contrast Contrast staining of the brain parenchyma post iodinated contrast can lead to interpret...
Article

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones (lateral view)

The lateral paranasal sinuses and facial bones view is a nonangled lateral radiograph showcasing the facial bones (i.e. mandible, maxilla, zygoma, nasal, and lacrimal bone) and paranasal sinuses. Indications This view is useful in assessing any inflammatory processes or fractures to the facial...
Article

Skull (submentovertex view)

The skull submentovertex view is an angled inferosuperior radiograph of the base of skull. As this view involves radiographic positioning that is uncomfortable for the patient and with CT being more sensitive to bony detail, this view is rapidly becoming obsolete. Indications This view is usef...
Article

Ghost image (orthopantomogram)

A ghost image is a commonly observed artifact in an orthopantomogram whereby a dense, often metallic object is located between the source of x-ray and the focal center, resulting in a duplicate 'ghost' image at the contralateral aspect of the image.  Real image vs ghost image In panoramic imag...
Article

Orthopantomography

The orthopantomogram (also known as an orthopantomograph, pantomogram, OPG or OPT) is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way...
Article

Facial bones (reverse Waters)

The reverse Waters view is a modified alternative to the Waters view. However, skull radiographs are rapidly becoming obsolete in general, being replaced by much more sensitive CT scans. Indications trauma facial fractures acute sinusitis Patient position the patient is supine the mid-sag...
Article

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones radiography

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
Article

Skull radiography

Skull radiography is the radiological investigation of the skull vault and associated bony structures. Seldom requested in modern medicine, plain radiography of the skull is often the last resort in trauma imaging in the absence of a CT. Indications Skull radiographs are indicated for a variet...
Article

Dacryocystography

Dacryocystography (DCG) is a fluoroscopic contrast examination of the nasolacrimal apparatus. The nasolacrimal duct is cannulated enabling iodinated contrast to be instilled into the nasolacrimal system. Indications The most frequent indication is epiphora: excessive tearing or watering of the...
Article

Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) view allows for visualization of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Indications This projection is useful in identifying structural changes and displaced fractures, assessing excursion and joi...
Article

Facial bones (Waters view)

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. Indications It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. In general, radiographs of the skull and facial bones are rapidly becoming obsole...
Article

Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1, example 2, example 3 Ultrasound example 1 CT contrast...
Article

Skull (Towne view)

The Towne view is an angled anteroposterior radiograph of the skull and visualizes the petrous part of the pyramids, the dorsum sellae and the posterior clinoid processes, which are visible in the shadow of the foramen magnum. Indications This projection is used to evaluate for medial and late...
Article

Skull (AP view)

The skull anteroposterior (AP) view is a non-angled radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This examination is able to assess for medial and lateral displacements of skull fractures, in additio...
Article

Skull (PA view)

The skull posteroanterior (PA) view is a non-angled radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This examination is able to assess for medial and lateral displacements of skull fractures, in additio...
Article

Temporal bone (modified Stenvers view)

The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, internal acoustic meatus and bony labyrinth. It is performed as a posteroanterior (PA) projection to minimize radiation to the orbits. This view has succeeded the Stenvers view, which ...
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
Article

Skull (Caldwell view)

The Caldwell view is a caudally angled radiograph, with its posteroanterior projection allowing for minimal radiation to the orbits. This view may be used in imaging of the skull or facial bones depending on the clinical indications. Indications This view aids in visualizing the paranasal sinu...
Article

Temporal bone (Stenvers view)

Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, internal acoustic meatus, and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrod...
Article

Whole-body CT (protocol)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. The majority of the evidence regarding whole-body CT is, understandably, retrospective. There is some e...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.