Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

161 results found
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Zebra sign (disambiguation)

The evocative appearance of the coat of a zebra has been used for several distinctive signs in radiology: zebra sign: cerebellar hemorrhage 1 zebra sign: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 zebra spleen: arterial phase appearance of normal spleen 4,5 zebra stripe sign: treated osteogenesis imper...
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Scaphoid abdomen

Scaphoid abdomen is the term given to an inward concavity of the anterior abdominal wall. It is used both for the clinical appearance and its radiological equivalent.  In children it maybe a sign of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In both adult and pediatric patients, it raises the possibility...
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Mackler's triad

Mackler's triad consists of the clinical symptoms of vomiting, followed by severe pain in the chest, usually retrosternal, lower thoracic, and upper abdominal, associated with subcutaneous emphysema detected on physical examination, which is suggestive of esophageal rupture (Boerhaave syndrome) ...
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Anderson triad

The Anderson triad consists of the clinical findings of tachypnea and abdominal rigidity with lower thoracic or epigastric pain, associated with subcutaneous emphysema, which is usually related to esophageal rupture. 
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Crescent sign (disambiguation)

The characteristic shape of the crescent has been given to many radiological signs over the years. crescent sign (disambiguation) crescent sign (arterial dissection) crescent sign (inguinal hernia) crescent sign (intravenous pyelogram) crescent sign (lung hydatid) crescent sign (osteonecro...
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Corkscrew sign (diffuse esophageal spasm)

A corkscrew esophagus, also known as a rosary bead esophagus, is a classic appearance of distal esophageal spasm on a barium swallow. It is actually quite a rare appearance which is seen in <5% cases of distal esophageal spasm. The finding is caused by multiple tertiary (non-propulsive) contract...
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Bowler hat sign

The bowler hat sign refers to an appearance on a GI contrast study, which may be seen with both polyps and diverticula of the bowel. The filling defect produced by the pathology mimics the outline of a bowler hat. It was originally described for colonic lesions, but can be seen with lesions thro...
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Ram's horn sign

The Ram's horn sign, also known as Shofar sign, is the tubular, conical appearance of the stomach antrum seen on a barium meal. The stomach is less distensible and the curved conical appearance resembles the horn of a ram. This is seen in granulomatous disease, typically Crohn disease, but also...
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Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia)

Rosenbach sign or phenomenon is a clinical sign described in hemiplegia.  The sign refers to the absence of an abdominal wall skin reflex when stroking the paralyzed side of a patient; conversely on the unaffected side, the reflex is normal 1. See also Rosenbach gave his name to two other cli...
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Obturator sign

Obturator sign is a clinical sign of acute appendicitis, it is defined as discomfort felt by the subject/patient on the slow internal movement of the hip joint, while the right knee is flexed. It indicates an inflamed pelvic appendix that is in contact with the obturator internus muscle 1-3. Se...
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Steelpan sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The steelpan sign refers to the close resemblance of sigmoid volvulus on CT to the percussion instrument known as the steelpan. The steelpan, also known as steel drum or pan, is a Caribbean musical instrument invented in Trinidad and Tobago by the mid-1930s, which became very popular in Trinidad...
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Split-wall sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The split-wall sign is one of the signs of sigmoid volvulus. This sign is characterized by the separation of the walls of a single loop of the sigmoid colon due to the invagination of mesenteric fat between them. The intervening fat causes the loop to appear bilobed or C-shaped on axial images, ...
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Boas sign

Boas sign is a clinical sign that is defined as hyperesthesia felt by the patient to light touch in the right lower scapular region or the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is classically seen in patients with acute cholecystitis. History and etymology Ismar Isidor Boas (1858–1938), was ...
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Carnett sign

The Carnett sign describes an examination finding used to distinguish pain arising from the abdominal wall from pain arising from within the abdomen itself. Eliciting the sign was described as a two-stage procedure. First the examiner locates the point of maximal tenderness through palpation of...
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Blumberg sign

Blumberg sign is defined as discomfort on the manual application of tension over the abdomen observed by simultaneously watching the subjects face. On the removal of the examiner's hand the patient should be again asked whether he or she is feeling pain or not. It is expressive of peritoneal irr...
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Rovsing sign

Rovsing sign is commonly used to describe pain elicited in the right iliac fossa on deep palpation of the left iliac fossa.  It is used in clinical examination to detect peritoneal irritation in the right iliac fossa, most frequently associated with acute appendicitis. Most teaching erroneously...
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Aaron sign

Aaron sign is a clinical sign that is defined as a feeling of distress and pain in the epigastric, umbilical and praecordial regions, on steady pressure over McBurney point, it is suggestive of chronic appendicitis. History and etymology Charles Dettie Aaron (1866–1951) was an American gastroe...
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Cullen sign

Cullen sign refers to superficial edema visible as periumbilical discolouration and is most commonly seen in patients with acute pancreatitis 1-3. Clinical presentation Clinically patients with pancreatitis present with epigastric pain that radiates to the umbilical/periumbilical region and th...
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O sign

The O sign is a radiographic sign described in gastric band slippage. Normally, a correctly-sited laparoscopic gastric band lies such that its anterior and posterior margins are superimposed in the anteroposterior orientation and a oblong morphology is visible on a frontal radiograph.  When a g...
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V sign (disambiguation)

Signs inspired by the letter V have been described in several different pathologies: inverted V sign (pneumoperitoneum) inverted V sign (spinal cord) Naclerio V sign (pneumomediastinum) V sign (interphalangeal joint subluxation)
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Chinese dragon sign (vascular)

The Chinese dragon sign is a radiological sign on abdominal radiograph and CT describing the radiologic appearance of calcified tortuous splenic artery that resembles a Chinese dragon. The tortuous splenic artery segment on the splenic hilum side represents the dragon head while the other arteri...
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Peritoneal to abdominal height ratio (PAR)

Peritoneal to abdominal height ratio (PAR) ≥ 0.52 is a statistically associated sign for raised intra-abdominal pressure > 12 mmHg in the context of abdominal compartment syndrome in critically ill patients in CT.   It can be calculated by dividing the distance from the linea alba to the poster...
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Split scar sign (rectal cancer response assessment)

The split scar sign has been described as a feature on rectal cancer MRI studies acquired following chemoradiotherapy and having a high specificity and positive predictive value for a complete response 1. It is identified on high resolution T2 weighted imaging and refers to the presence of low ...
Article

Grey Turner sign

The Grey Turner sign refers to the clinical finding of atraumatic flank ecchymosis, which is occasionally associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, classically due to hemorrhagic pancreatitis 2. It is thought to occur when blood extravasates from the posterior pararenal space and crosses throu...
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Tumor deposits

Tumor deposits (in the context of rectal cancer) are discrete nodules of tumor tissue within the mesorectum, often found along the path of draining vessels, and are distinct from lymph node metastases. They are found in >50% of MRI studies of patients with rectal cancer 1. Radiographic features...
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Chicken intestine appearance

The chicken intestine is a term used to describe the appearance of a hypersegmented barium column. This appearance is characteristic of intestinal tuberculosis 1. Other radiographic findings such as accelerated intestinal transit, flocculation and dilution of the barium and, luminal stenosis wi...
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Phantom organ sign

The phantom organ sign is a term used when a large mass arises from a small organ and as a consequence, it is impossible to detect the affected organ. The identification of this sign and other radiological signs such as the embedded organ sign, beak sign, and prominent feeding artery sign on CT...
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Embedded organ sign

The embedded organ sign is used to help localize a mass and define the organ from which it originates. When a mass extrinsically compresses an adjacent organ (such as inferior cava vein and gastrointestinal tract)  it gives the organ a crescent shape, which is called a negative embedded organ si...
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Hellmer sign

Hellmer sign is a radiographic finding depicting medial displacement of the lateral edge of the liver from the peritoneal wall. It was originally described as a pathognomonic sign of ascites. However, this displacement can also be caused by intraperitoneal fat, extraperitoneal free fluid or a ma...
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Sandwich sign (disambiguation)

The sandwich sign is used for two different imaging appearances: sandwich sign (Marchiafava-Bignami disease) sandwich sign (mesentery) Sandwich sign has also been coined for the appearance of: primary pleural lymphoma 1,2 mediastinal lymphoma 3 marrow edema and hemorrhage on MRI of flexion...
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Napkin ring sign (disambiguation)

The napkin ring sign may refer to either of the following imaging findings: napkin ring sign (colon): colonic stenosis such as due to colon cancer napkin ring sign (coronary): coronary artery vulnerable plaque A napkin ring is a decorative household item used in some Western societies to hold...
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Pseudo-Rigler sign

The pseudo-Rigler sign is an important form of pseudopneumoperitoneum, and a mimicker of the classic Rigler (double wall) sign, that can be encountered normally on abdominal radiographs. Radiographic features The pseudo-Rigler sign can result from omental or mesenteric fat, or oral contrast me...
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Apple core sign (disambiguation)

The apple core sign has been described in two different pathologies: apple core sign (colon) apple core sign (femur)
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Corkscrew sign (disambiguation)

Corkscrew sign can refer to: corkscrew sign (corkscrew cochlea) corkscrew sign (diffuse esophageal spasm) corkscrew sign (midgut volvulus) corkscrew sign (ureteric tuberculosis)
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Torricelli-Bernoulli sign

The Torricelli-Bernoulli sign denotes nondependent air trapped in a necrotic ulcer in a gastrointestinal tumor seen on axial CT or MRI. Occasionally, a vertical stream of bubbles can be seen issuing from the orifice of the ulcer. Torricelli's theorem gives the relation of the velocity of a flui...
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Leaping dolphin sign

The leaping dolphin sign (also known as the diaphragm muscle slip sign) may be seen in pneumoperitoneum on a supine abdominal radiograph. It represents the outlining of the diaphragmatic muscle slips by free intraperitoneal gas and usually requires a moderate to large volume of pneumoperitoneum ...
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Pyrexia

Pyrexia (or fever) is a clinical sign, indicated by an abnormally elevated core body temperature, which is defined by several medical societies as ≥38.3°C (≥≈101°F). The temperature elevation may be persistent or episodic. If the body temperature is greater than 41.5°C - a rare phenomenon - it i...
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Doughnut sign (disambiguation)

The doughnut sign can refer to various imaging appearances: crescent in a doughnut sign (bowel) doughnut sign (bone scan) doughnut sign (bowel) doughnut sign (chest) doughnut sign (missed testicular torsion) doughnut sign (orbit)
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Round belly sign (abdominal compartment syndrome)

Round belly sign is a sign of increased abdominal pressure of greater than 20 mmHg in abdominal compartment syndrome where the abdomen has a rounded appearance of transverse section on CT, rather than its typical oval shape. The sign is positive when the AP to transverse diameter of the abdomen...
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Dog ear sign (abdomen)

The dog ear sign represents the presence of fluid or blood in the pelvic peritoneal recess on a supine abdominal radiograph. The appearance of the sign comes from a convex soft-tissue density representing fluid or blood in the lateral pelvic peritoneal recess separated from the bladder by a thin...
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Peritoneal stripe sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The peritoneal stripe sign in abdominal ultrasonography is considered indicative of intraperitoneal free air, present in pneumoperitoneum. Free air in the abdomen will collect in an anti-dependent manner, typically the anterior prehepatic space in the supine patient, settling against the parieta...
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Psoas sign (abdominal x-ray)

The psoas sign is a classic non-specific finding on the abdominal radiograph, potentially representing retroperitoneal pathology. Normally on an abdominal radiograph, the lateral margins of both the psoas muscles are clearly visible due to adjacent fat. When the lateral edge of one, or both, ps...
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Esophageal intubation

Esophageal intubation refers to the incorrect placement of an endotracheal tube in the esophagus. Within minutes its consequences can be catastrophic with the seriousness of its outcome depending largely on the timeliness of its diagnosis. Epidemiology Accidental esophageal intubation can happ...
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Fissure for ligamentum teres sign

The fissure for ligamentum teres sign or extrahepatic ligamentum teres sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the ligamentum teres (remnant of an obliterated left umbilical vein) with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radi...
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Hepatic edge sign

The hepatic edge sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum seen on a supine plain abdominal radiograph. It is represented by a cigar-shaped pocket of free air in the subhepatic region, which tracks superomedial following the contour of the liver.
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Urachus sign

The urachus sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the median umbilical ligament with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radiograph.
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Liver overlap sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The liver overlap sign can be seen in sigmoid volvulus wherein the sigmoid loop is seen, usually on an abdominal radiograph, ascending to the right upper quadrant and projecting over the liver shadow. In one study of 21 patients with confirmed sigmoid volvulus, the sign was present in 9 patient...
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Chilaiditi sign

Chilaiditi sign refers to the interposition of the bowel, usually colon, between the inferior surface of the right hemidiaphragm and the superior surface of the liver. It may be misinterpreted as a true pneumoperitoneum resulting in unnecessary further investigations and/or therapy (so-called ps...
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Cockade sign (disambiguation)

There are several described cockade signs in radiology: cockade sign (aorto-left ventricular tunnel) 1 cockade sign (appendicitis) 2 cockade sign (GI tumors) 4 cockade sign (hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) 3 cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma) History and etymology It is named after a cocka...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Telltale triangle sign

The telltale triangle sign, also known as the triangle sign or telltale triangle, is a radiographic sign seen on plain abdominal radiographs in a supine, cross table lateral or decubitus view that signifies presence of pneumoperitoneum, of any cause 1,2. It describes the appearance of a radiolu...
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Stack of coins sign (bowel)

Stack of coins sign refers to the appearance of small bowel folds that are smoothly and uniformly thickened 1. The margins between the folds are sharply delineated and the arrangement of clearly demarcated parallel folds is likened to a stack of coins or a picket fence. This sign is distinct fro...
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Veiled right kidney sign

The veiled right kidney sign is a sonographic sign described in pneumoretroperitoneum, most commonly due to duodenal perforation. It refers to the appearance of the right kidney on transabdominal ultrasound 1-4. On ultrasound, there is difficulty in obtaining images of the right kidney due to i...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)
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Caterpillar sign (pyloric stenosis)

The caterpillar sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis. It refers to the appearance of the stomach on an upper gastrointestinal radiographic series or plain abdominal radiograph 1,2. On these imaging modalities in a patient with pyloric stenosis, the stomach appears distended...
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Rose-thorn ulcers (terminal ilium)

Rose-thorn ulcers or rose-thorn appearance refers to deep penetrating linear ulcers or fissuring typically seen within stenosed terminal ileum with a thickened wall. They appear as thorn-like extraluminal projections on barium studies and this appearance is one of the typical signs of Crohn dise...
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Triple bubble sign

The triple bubble sign is the classic radiographic appearance observed in jejunal atresia 1,2. The appearance is due to a proximal obstruction caused by the atretric jejunum. It is equivalent to the double bubble sign, but a third bubble is seen because of proximal jejunal distention.
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Periportal free gas sign

The periportal free gas sign has been described as being strongly suggestive for upper gastrointestinal tract perforation. See also bowel perforation (summary) pneumoperitoneum
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X-marks-the-spot sign (large bowel volvulus)

The X-marks-the-spot sign of large bowel volvulus refers to the crossing loops of the bowel at the site of the transition. It has been reported to improve diagnostic confidence in detecting cecal and sigmoid volvulus. This is in contrast to the split-wall sign which indicates partial obstruction...
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Bird beak sign (sigmoid colon)

Bird's beak sign of the sigmoid is one of the signs of sigmoid volvulus. It represents gradual narrowing/tapering of the sigmoid colon up to the level of obstruction during contrast/barium insertion to the rectum or on CT. When located in the sigmoid colon, it suggests the diagnosis of sigmoid ...
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Ball of wool sign (hydatid cyst)

The ball of wool sign, also referred to as the yarn sign or congealed water lily sign, is an ultrasound appearance, representing degeneration of hydatid cysts (WHO class CE 4). The inner side of the cyst detaches from the cyst wall and folds on itself, causing a change from anechoic (fluid) to a...
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Bird beak sign (right colon)

The bird beak sign of the right colon is tapering obstruction of the inferior part of right colon seen on contrast enema or CT scan with rectal contrast indicating cecal volvulus. This sign can help to differentiate cecal volvulus from cecal bascule, in particular on a contrast/barium enema stu...
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Inverted "V" sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the lateral umbilical ligament sign, is a sign of pneumoperitoneum manifested by the visualization of an inverted "V"  shape in the pelvis on supine view of abdominal radiographs. It represents free gas outlining the lateral umbilical ligaments. In infants, t...
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Stepladder sign (disambiguation)

Stepladder sign may refer to: intracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) gas-fluid levels in obstructed small bowel (erect abdominal radiograph)
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Stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction)

Stepladder sign represents the appearance of distended small bowel loops with gas-fluid levels that appear to be stacked on top of each other, typically observed on erect abdominal radiographs in the setting of small bowel obstruction. 
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Fat stranding (CT)

Fat stranding is a common sign seen on CT wherever fat can be found. It is most commonly seen in abdomen/pelvis, but can also be seen in retroperitoneum, thorax, neck and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localizing both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stran...
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Fat stranding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fat stranding is a sign that is seen on CT. It describes the change in attenuation of fat around an inflamed structure and is a very helpful signpost for intra-abdominal pathology. Reference article This is a summary arti...
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Zebra spleen

Zebra spleen, also referred to as psychedelic spleen, tigroid splenic enhancement or more correctly inhomogeneous splenic enhancement, refers to the transient heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement of the spleen during the arterial or early portal venous phases of contrast enhancement in CT, MRI,...
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Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal

Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal (a.k.a. jejunization of the ileum) is one of the signs of celiac disease, and is seen on small bowel follow-through studies, CT and MRI 1-4. The pattern is one of increased number of ileal folds and reduced number of jejunal folds 1,2, and is considered positive...
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Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign refers to the linear/tapered extension of soft tissue tumors along the fascia. The sign has been classically described in benign fibrous proliferations 1-4: desmoid tumor plantar fibromatosis nodular fasciitis However, the same sign has also been described as the tail ...
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Ice pick sign

The ice pick sign is a smooth tapered narrowing of the upstream pancreatic duct distal to the pancreatic lesion seen frequently in benign pancreatic lesions such as a focal autoimmune pancreatitis, this is due to the extrinsic narrowing of the duct secondary to periductal fibrosis and inflammati...
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Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)
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Frimann-Dahl sign

The Frimann-Dahl sign is a diagnostic sign demonstrated when three dense lines, representing the sigmoid walls, are seen converging to the site of obstruction in sigmoid volvulus and associated with empty rectal gas 1. History and etymology Johan Frimann-Dahl (1902-82) was a Norwegian Professo...
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Double barrel sign (disambiguation)

Double barrel sign is an imaging appearance of two lumens adjacent to each other. It can be seen in: dilated bile duct adjacent to portal vein double barrel aorta: aortic dissection double barrel esophagus: esophageal dissection
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The Kirklin sign is different from the Kirklin complex, a gastric finding on upper GI fluoroscopy. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirkli...
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Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of ecchymosis and/or abraded skin in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) extending across the abdomen evident after a motor vehicle accident. Epidemiology A positive abdominal sea...
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Northern exposure sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The northern exposure sign has been described as a high specificity sign in sigmoid volvulus. On a supine abdominal radiograph, the apex of the sigmoid volvulus is seen above (cranial to) the transverse colon.
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Centipede sign (mesentery)

The centipede sign is seen as engorged mesenteric vessels in cases of acute sigmoid diverticulitis which gives an appearance similar to a centipede 1.
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Duct penetrating sign (pancreas)

Duct penetrating sign is a radiographic sign that can be useful in differentiating between focal pancreatitis (inflammatory pancreatic mass) from pancreatic carcinoma. A positive sign is when a mass is penetrated by an unobstructed pancreatic duct; this makes focal pancreatitis the most likely ...
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Lateral crescent sign (inguinal hernia)

The lateral crescent sign is a useful diagnostic sign of a direct inguinal hernia on CT scan, the hernia causing compression and lateral displacement of the inguinal canal contents (ductus deferens, testicular vessels, fat, etc.) to form a semicircle of tissue that resembles a moon crescent seen...
Article

Bucket handle appearance (disambiguation)

Bucket handle appearance is used in imaging to refer to several different entities: bucket handle fracture - non-accidental injury bucket handle fracture of the pelvis bucket handle meniscal tear bucket handle mesenteric injury
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Hyperattenuating ring sign (epiploic appendagitis)

The hyperattenuating ring sign is a sign that has been described with epiploic appendagitis and refers to a hyperattenuating ring of visceral peritoneum surrounding an inflamed epiploic appendage 1. On CT it can be seen as a ring of soft tissue surrounding a region of fat attenuation adjacent to...
Article

Bilateral adrenal gland hyperenhancement

Bilateral adrenal gland hyperenhancement or intense adrenal enhancement may be a feature of hypotension and forms part of the CT hypoperfusion complex. Adrenal gland hyperenhancement has been described in pediatric and small adult series or individual cases of hemorrhagic shock, pancreatitis, s...
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Lucent liver sign

The lucent liver sign is represented by a reduction of hepatic radiodensity on supine radiograph when there is a collection of free intraperitoneal gas located anterior to the liver.
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Fleischner sign (also known as the inverted umbrella sign), refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be con...
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Stierlin sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Stierlin sign refers to repeated emptying of the cecum, seen radiographically as barium remaining in the terminal part of the ileum and in the transverse colon. This occurs due to irritation of the cecum caused by M. tuberculosis. It is not specific for tuberculosis and can also be seen in C...
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Light bulb sign (pheochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is an MRI feature of this tumor. It refers to marked hyperintensity on T2 weighted sequences, however, this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and pheochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal intensit...
Article

Teardrop sign (superior mesenteric vein)

The teardrop sign of the superior mesenteric vein is one of the important signs in the local staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Its importance lies in its diagnostic, as well as prognostic, significance. This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic feat...
Article

Mushroom cap sign (endometriosis)

Mushroom cap sign is one of the important signs of deep rectosigmoid endometriosis seen on T2 weighted MRI sequence. It indicates the submucosal involvement in the rectosigmoid colon. The hypertrophic muscularis propria appears as heterogeneous low signal intensity surrounded by the high signal...
Article

Beak sign (pyloric stenosis)

Beak sign in pyloric stenosis is one of the fluoroscopic (barium meal) findings which is useful in the diagnosis of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Radiographic features Barium meal A beak-like tapering projection of barium is seen entering into the narrowed and compressed pyloric c...
Article

Gut signature sign

The gut signature sign is an ultrasound term used to describe the appearance of the gastrointestinal wall. Radiographic features  Ultrasound The bowel wall has five layers, composed of alternating hyperechoic and hypoechoic appearances. Anatomically these layers are as follows (innermost to o...
Article

Windsock sign (duodenal web)

The windsock sign is a typical appearance of a duodenal web (intraluminal duodenal diverticulum) on upper gastrointestinal contrast series which consists of an intraduodenal barium contrast-filled sac that is surrounded by a narrow lucent line (web or intraluminal mucosal diaphragm) which is wel...
Article

Mushroom sign (pyloric stenosis)

The mushroom sign (also called umbrella sign) is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis on barium examination. This sign refers to the impression made by the hypertrophic pylorus on the duodenal cap. See also shoulder sign double track sign caterpillar sign string sign beak sign

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