Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

12 results found
Article

Colorectal cancer (TNM staging 7th edition)

The 7th edition of the TNM classification of colorectal carcinomas was proposed in 2010, and has now been updated and replaced by the 8th edition, published in 2016. Primary tumor staging (T) Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: in...
Article

Rectal cancer response assessment

Assessment of rectal cancer response to therapy, which may be chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination, relies on the synthesis of clinical, endoscopic and radiologic evaluation.  The purpose of neoadjuvant therapy is to downstage the tumor, to facilitate surgical resection and reduce local...
Article

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor staging refers to TNM staging of epithelial cancers other than the squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma groups located in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the...
Article

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of adenocarcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in this system are high...
Article

Choi response criteria

The solitary use of the size of the tumor during evaluation for response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could provide an addition...
Article

Dukes staging system for colorectal cancer

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
Article

Anal cancer (staging)

The most recent version of TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows: Primary tumor (T) TX: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], anal intraepithelial neoplasia II-III (AIN II...
Article

Necrotizing enterocolitis (staging)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, to guide appropriate treatment based on the work of Bell et al. 1. In general, stage I and II are managed medically whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnea, bradyc...
Article

Rectal cancer (staging)

Staging of rectal cancer strongly predicts the success of and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. MRI is the modality of choice for the staging of rectal cancer, to guide surgical and non-surgical management options. MRI is used at diagnosis, following downstaging chemora...
Article

Pancreatic cancer (staging)

Staging of pancreatic cancer (i.e. ductal adenocarcinoma) is traditionally performed according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / Union for International Cancer Control (IUCC) TNM system.  In the 2017 new edition (8th edition) AJCC published various major changes including exocr...
Article

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in th...
Article

Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis propr...

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