Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

53 results found
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Tumor pseudoprogression (lung cancer)

Radiologic tumor pseudoprogression on imaging denotes an imaging appearance of tumor response where the tumor first exhibits findings suggestive of progression (i.e. growth, new lesions). However, during sustained therapy, response is eventually demonstrated 1. Epidemiology With the advent of ...
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Gallbladder cancer (staging - AJCC 8th edition)

The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) 8th edition gallbladder cancer staging system was introduced in 2018. TNM system T: primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ - tumor only within the epithelium (the inner layer of the gallbladder) T1: tumor invades the lamina propria or muscularis T...
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Distal cholangiocarcinoma (staging)

Distal cholangiocarcinoma staging is defined according to the TNM staging classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). As of 2018, the staging criteria are in their 8th edition and reflected below 1. These criteria apply to cancer...
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Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (staging)

Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma staging is, for prognostication, most commonly conducted using the TNM staging classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). As of 2018, the staging criteria are in their 8th edition and reflected below...
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Skip metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

Skip metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer refer to the uncommon phenomenon in which metastases do not follow the conventional stepwise pattern from level I to level II, to level III (infraclavicular), to the supraclavicular fossa, and or internal jugular chain 1-6,9. Terminol...
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Rectal cancer response assessment

Assessment of rectal cancer response to therapy, which may be chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination, relies on the synthesis of clinical, endoscopic and radiologic evaluation.  The purpose of neoadjuvant therapy is to downstage the tumor, to facilitate surgical resection and reduce local...
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B symptoms

The B symptoms (a.k.a. inflammatory symptoms) are a triad of systemic symptoms associated with more advanced disease and a poorer outcome in lymphoma 1,2: weight loss >10% unintentional decrease in body weight in the 6 months preceding the diagnosis fever: >38°C night sweats B symptoms are ...
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Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (staging)

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma staging is conducted most commonly in accordance with the TNM staging classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). As of 2018, the staging criteria are in their 8th edition and reflected below 1. Th...
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Neuroblastoma (image-defined risk factors)

Image-defined risk factors are imaging features seen at the time of neuroblastoma diagnosis that confer a poorer prognosis. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) suggested an update (2009) to the neuroblastoma staging with a list of features that, if present, upstages a patient with ...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor staging refers to TNM staging of epithelial cancers other than the squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma groups located in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of adenocarcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in this system are high...
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Medullary thyroid cancer (staging)

Medullary thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas have similar TNM category definitions but different prognostic stage group definitions. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published...
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Anaplastic thyroid cancer (staging)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid carcinomas are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for st...
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Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck (staging)

Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of metastatic carcinomas in the head and neck region without an identifiable primary tumor. The typical scenario involves squamous cell carcinoma present in a cervical lymph node, no obvious primary source on clinical exam...
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Cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck (staging)

Cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of nonmelanoma skin cancer involving the scalp, external ear, neck, or face including external lips. The system applies to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and numerous other skin carcinomas, notably excluding eyelid carcino...
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Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (staging)

Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of mucosal melanoma involving the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, and, less commonly, pharynx and larynx. The system is distinct from staging of carcinomas of those sites and of cutaneous melanoma. The following ar...
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Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification

The Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification is a lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They came about in 1988 following recommended modifications to the Ann Arbor staging system after a meeting in Cotswold, England. This classification h...
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Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT and MR imaging, howeve...
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WHO criteria in tumor response

The WHO criteria were developed in the 1980s under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to standardize reporting of cancers in clinical trials.​ Nowadays, newer criteria often based on the WHO criteria (such as RECIST, mRECIST, Choi criteria, Lugano response criteria), have widely...
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Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST)

Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) are guidelines to asses tumors that makes use of positron emission tomography (PET) to provide functional information to help determine tumor viability. The criteria consist of four categories: complete metabolic response ...
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Choi response criteria

The solitary use of the size of the tumor during evaluation for response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could provide an addition...
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Visceral pleural invasion

Visceral pleural invasion is a feature that can be seen in lung cancers. It is defined as tumor extension beyond the elastic layer of the visceral pleura, and in some cases may result in a cancer crossing a fissure to invade an adjacent lobe of the lung. It is considered an aggressive sign and o...
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Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  Standard-of-care lung cancer staging ideally should be performed in a multidisciplinary meeting using the information provided ...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (staging)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arises most commonly at the distal end of the penile urethra with local invasion of the glans. In addition to TNM classification, the following staging is used: Staging stage I: confined to the glans or foreskin stage II: invasion of penile shaft stage I...
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Thoracic lymph node stations

Thoracic lymph nodes are divided into 14 stations as defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 1, principally in the context of oncologic staging. For the purpose of prognostication, the stations may be grouped into seven zones.  The IASLC definitions leave so...
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Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5PS) is an internationally-recommended scale for routine clinical reporting and clinical trials using FDG PET-CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Incl...
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ECOG performance status

The ECOG performance status is a scale used to assess how a patient's disease is progressing, assess how the disease affects the daily living abilities of the patient, and determine appropriate treatment and prognosis (it is one of the three components that form the BCLC HCC staging). grade 0: ...
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Primary urethral cancer (staging)

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumor staging (T) Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of sube...
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Vaginal cancer (staging)

The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers all histological subtypes and is as follows FIGO staging system stage 0: carcinoma in situ stage I: tumor confined to vagina stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls stage III: extension to pelvic side w...
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Vulval cancer (staging)

Staging of vulval cancer can be done with either the AJCC or FIGO systems, although both are similar.  Staging FIGO stage I:tumor confined to the vulva IA lesions ≤2 cm in size, confined to the vulva or perineum and with stromal invasion ≤1.0 mm*, no nodal metastasis IB: lesions N2 cm in si...
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Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer 4. stage I:  tumor limited to the ovaries stage Ia:  ​tumor limited to one ovary capsule i...
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Hypopharyngeal carcinoma (staging)

Hypopharyngeal carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas originating in the hypopharynx. This system most commonly applies to squamous cell carcinomas but can also apply to rarer epithelial malignancies in the region. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by the Am...
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Cancer staging list

Cancer staging involves a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis. The AJCC TNM staging schema is the most common, but other systems are used for specific malignancies or body parts. Breast breast cancer staging Chest lung cancer staging malignant pleural mesothelioma s...
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FIGO staging system

The FIGO staging systems are determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique). In general, there are five stages: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (common in cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancer) stage I: confined to...
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (TNM staging)

Below is the eighth edition of the TNM staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma, which was published in 2018 1. T - Tumor Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumor T1 involving ipsilateral parietal pleura (inc. mediastinal and diaphragmatic pleura) +/- v...
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Small cell lung cancer (staging - superseded)

Previously, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was not staged in the same manner as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but since 2013 both are staged using the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) lung cancer staging system (currently in its 8th edition, published in 2016)....
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Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of pediatric liver tumors not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all pediatric liver tumors Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup staging ...
Article

Neuroblastoma (staging)

There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
Article

Masaoka staging system of thymoma

The Masaoka staging system is commonly adopted for thymomas 1-3, and is the most important determinant of survival following surgical resection 4: stage I: intact thymic capsule stage II: capsular invasion into adjacent mediastinal fat or pleura stage III: macroscopic invasion into adjacent o...
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Rectal cancer (staging)

Staging of rectal cancer strongly predicts the success of and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. MRI is the modality of choice for the staging of rectal cancer, to guide surgical and non-surgical management options. MRI is used at diagnosis, following downstaging chemora...
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Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (staging)

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder staging uses the TNM system which has replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumor staging system. It is very similar to the staging of TCC of the renal pelvis and staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging (8th edition) T Ta: non-i...
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Pancreatic cancer (staging)

Staging of pancreatic cancer (i.e. ductal adenocarcinoma) is traditionally performed according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / Union for International Cancer Control (IUCC) TNM system.  In the 2017 new edition (8th edition) AJCC published various major changes including exocr...
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Cervical lymph node (staging)

Cervical lymph node staging refers to evaluating regional nodal metastasis from primary cancer of the head and neck. The following article reflects the 8th edition of the TNM staging system published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, which is used for staging starting January 1, 2018 1,...
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Renal cell carcinoma (TNM staging)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (8th edition) T T1 T1a: tumor confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: tumor confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 cm T2: limi...
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Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasis, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local spre...
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Transitional cell carcinoma (staging)

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumor, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  
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TNM staging system

The TNM staging system (officially known as the TNM classification system of malignant tumors) is a cancer staging system overseen and published by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) publishes the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual which is b...
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Oral cavity carcinoma (staging)

Oral cavity carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the oral cavity. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial and minor salivary gland cancers are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by th...
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Prostate cancer (staging)

Prostate cancer staging takes into account TNM (primary site, nodal and distant metastases), pretreatment PSA and histological grading. The Gleason score is used to determine the Grade Group.  An old superseded staging system is the Whitmore-Jewett staging system. Additionally, there is some o...
Article

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in th...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 7th edition - superseded)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 7th edition lung cancer staging system was proposed in 2010 and has now been updated and superseded by the 8th edition, published in 2016. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) used to be staged di...
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Laryngeal carcinoma (staging)

Laryngeal carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic larynx. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial tumors are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published ...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

Many lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have been developed. The most widely used currently is the Lugano staging classification, which also separately defines criteria for response to treatment assessed by PET-CT or by CT alone. Patients having undergon...

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