The Levene index or ventricular index is a marker of ventricular size in infants. It is defined as the distance between the falx and the lateral wall of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle in the coronal plane 1.
The Levene index is a marker of ventricular volume and thus can be...
Image-defined risk factors are imaging features seen at the time of neuroblastoma diagnosis that confer a poorer prognosis. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) suggested an update (2009) to the neuroblastoma staging with a list of features that, if present, upstages a patient with ...
The Salter-Thompson classification of Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into two groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish:
group A: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head
group B: i...
The Catterall classification of Perthes disease is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head:
bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head
changes are visible best in frog l...
The PRETEXT system proposed by the International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (previously called Société Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique - Epithelial Liver Tumor Study Group - SIOPEL) aims for staging and risk stratification of liver tumors at diagnosis.
It is used to describe ...
Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging and relies on the identification of local tumor extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, to guide appropriate treatment based on the work of Bell et al. 1. In general, stage I and II are managed medically whereas stage III is managed surgically.
lethargy, temperature instability, apnea, bradyc...
As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma.
PRETEXT grouping system of pediatric liver tumors
not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all pediatric liver tumors
Intergroup staging system
specific for hepatoblastoma (see below)
Intergroup staging ...
There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS).
International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS)
This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1:
The Waldenström classification of Perthes disease refers to x-ray abnormalities and represents four temporal phases of the disease. These stages have been further subdivided in the modified Elizabethtown classification 2.
stage I: early
asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on the affect...
Wilms tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasis, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor is one of the more common childhood malignancies.
confined to kidney
complete resection possible