Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

84 results found
Article

Orbital apex syndrome

Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a constellation of clinical findings, presenting as a result of several potential pathologies that compress or otherwise affect structures passing through the orbital apex. Clinical presentation Presentation is according to the structures...
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Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ACTA2 gene, resulting in intracranial steno-occlusive disease and aortic dissection or aneurysm, among other complications. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed in childhood 1. Clinical pre...
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Auriculocondylar syndrome

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterized by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
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Godtfredsen syndrome

Godtfredsen syndrome is a rare syndrome of abducens and hypoglossal nerve palsies that localizes to a clival mass. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation includes 1-3: abducens nerve palsy: diplopia worse when horizontal gaze is directed towards the affected side hypoglossal...
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Catel-Manzke syndrome

Catel-Manzke syndrome is a digitopalatal syndrome initially described in 1961. Inheritance pattern is unknown. Radiographic findings include micronagthia and accessory ossicles at the bases of the metacarpals.
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Tapia syndrome

Tapia syndrome , also called matador's disease, is a rare syndrome that is characterized by unilateral paralysis of the tongue and vocal cords. Although the problem typically occurs after anesthetic airway management or manipulation, it can be due to central causes in rare cases 11.  The syndrom...
Article

Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome

The Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome is characterized by chronic hypothyroidism with high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), delayed bone age, precocious puberty but lacking pubic and axillary hair growth 1.  Epidemiology The acquired form of hypothyroidism is seen in children caused by chr...
Article

Keutel syndrome

Keutel syndrome is an extremely rare inherited condition. Clinical presentation It is characterized by: cartilage calcification of: ears nose larynx trachea - with resultant tracheobronchial stenosis ribs pulmonary arterial stenoses brachytelephalangism (short fingers and nails that re...
Article

Branchio-otic syndrome

Branchio-otic syndrome (also known as BOS, BOS1, BO syndrome 1 and branchiootic dysplasia) is a rare autosomal dominant disease. It manifests as abnormalities of the second branchial arch, with predominant abnormalities of the ear. No renal disease is seen, in contradistinction to its close name...
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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), also known as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), is a disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of total (i.e. apnoeas) or reduction (i.e. hypopnoeas) in ventilation due to total or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This condition is dis...
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Persistent postural perceptual dizziness

Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness refers to a recently (c. 2017) defined diagnostic syndrome. It unifies key features of chronic subjective dizziness, phobic postural vertigo and related disorders. It produces persistent dizziness, non-spinning vertigo and/or unsteadiness.  Clinical pres...
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Empty nose syndrome

The empty nose syndrome refers to a paradoxical sensation of nasal obstruction despite objectively patent nasal airways following inferior and/or middle turbinate resection. Epidemiology The condition is rare, occuring in a minority of patients who have undergone prior turbinate resection. Cl...
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Superior thyroid cornu syndrome

Superior thyroid cornu syndrome refers to a situation when there is precipitation of dysphagia and /or other symptoms as a hypertrophy +/- ossification of one of both the both of the superior horns (cornu) of the thyroid cartilage. This can also result from extreme medial deviation. Treatment a...
Article

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a very rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is characterized clinically by abnormalities affecting the eyes, craniofacial structures, and branchial sinuses. Epidemiology More than 80 cases have been reported in the global literature since its f...
Article

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (also known as type III acrocephalosyndactyly) is characterized by limb and skull abnormalities. Epidemiology It is the most common craniosynostosis syndrome and affects 1:25 - 50,000 individuals. Males and females are equally affected. Clinical presentation The spe...
Article

Frey syndrome

Frey syndrome (also known as Baillarger syndrome, Dupuy syndrome, and auriculotemporal syndrome) is a complication of parotid surgery. It clinically manifests as sweating and reddening in the region of the face supplied by the auriculotemporal nerve. The symptoms typically occur when tasting foo...
Article

Mainzer-Saldino syndrome

Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (also known as conorenal syndrome (CRS)) is a rare condition and is one of the ciliopathies. It is due to mutations in the IFT140 gene, whose protein product is one of the six parts of the intraflagellar transport complex A. The syndrome's key characteristics are: phal...
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Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (PSCD) is the presence of vestibuloauditory symptoms secondary to absence of the bony covering of the posterior semicircular canal (PSC). Epidemiology It is thought to be rare: in a case series of 112 patients with a high riding jugular bulb it ...
Article

Gillespie syndrome

Gillespie syndrome is a rare genetic condition presenting as a mydriasis, secondary to an omnipresent partial aniridia. The abnormal iris is bilateral, with a highly-specific scalloped inner margin, due to hypoplasia of the central constrictor pupillae fibers. Associated features include an unch...
Article

Rieger anomaly

The Rieger anomaly refers to the maldevelopment of the anterior chamber of the ocular globe. The iris and cornea do not form correctly, findings including: hypoplastic iris stroma corectopia: an off-center pupil in the iris colobomas of the iris (pseudopolycoria) Patients are at increased ri...
Article

Superior orbital fissure syndrome

Superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) (also known as Rochon–Duvigneaud syndrome) is a rare complication of craniofacial trauma with an orbital fracture that extends to the superior orbital fissure that results in injury to the cranial nerves III, IV, V (ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ner...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome

Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome is an extremely rare condition where a gene mutation results in hyperparathyroidism in association with both benign and malignant tumors, most notably, tumors in the mandible or maxilla 2. Epidemiology Approximately 200 cases have been reported in the med...
Article

Brown syndrome (orbit)

Brown syndrome refers to a failure of upward gaze while the eye is adducted secondary to an abnormality of the superior oblique tendon sheath complex. Pathology This abnormality is a little counter-intuitive and highlights how the action of the superior oblique is position-dependent and that e...
Article

Nelson syndrome

Nelson syndrome is a rare disorder observed in patients with Cushing disease that have undergone bilateral adrenalectomy. It involves enlargement of an existing adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary tumor, typically an adenoma, after surgical resection of the adrenal glands.  Epidemio...
Article

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of vertigo. It occurs secondary to change in posture and typically is associated with nystagmus. The etiology is thought to be due to changes of position of the otoliths in the inner ear, most commonly into the posterio...
Article

Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome

Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RTSC), also known as 3C (cranio-cerebello-cardiac) syndrome, is a rare entity with a variable spectrum of CNS (primarily cerebellar), craniofacial, and congenital heart defects. Clinical presentation craniofacial cleft palate ocular coloboma prominent occiput lo...
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Hemifacial microsomia

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the second most common congenital facial anomaly after cleft lip/palate. The condition may vary from mild to severe. Goldenhar syndrome has been described as a variant of HFM, in which vertebral anomalies and epibulbar dermoids were present. Terminology HFM is al...
Article

Sclerosteosis

Sclerosteosis is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia resulting in sclerosis and hyperostosis, particularly of the skull, mandible and tubular bones. It is closely related to Van Buchem disease 1. Epidemiology Sclerosteosis is a very rare disease, with only around 100 cases reported. Ther...
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Norrie disease

Norrie disease is a rare X-linked inherited cause of congenital bilateral blindness. It can present with a retinal mass (pseudoglioma) and cataracts. It is associated with developmental delay and hearing loss. 
Article

Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic clinical syndrome caused by a pathological excess of circulating free T4 (thyroxine) and/or free T3 (tri-iodothyronine). Terminology Although commonly done, thyrotoxicosis should not be confused with, nor is it synonymous with hyperthyroidism. The latter term...
Article

Zimmerman-Laband syndrome

Zimmerman-Laband syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome, characterized primarily by gingival hypertrophy and skeletal abnormalities.  Pathology The molecular basis of the syndrome is currently unknown. An autosomal dominant mutation with a high mutation rate and rare instances of germinal mosa...
Article

Carotidynia

Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome, is a rare syndrome characterized by neck pain in the region of the carotid bifurcation. It was classified by the International Headache Society (IHS) in 1988 as an idiopathic neck pain syndrome associated with tenderness over the carotid bifurcation with...
Article

Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
Article

Neck tongue syndrome

Neck tongue syndrome is rare and comprises altered sensation in one side of the tongue aggravated by neck movement with ipsilateral neck pain 1.  Epidemiology Neck tongue syndrome is seen in a wide range of ages but is more commonly reported in older children and young adults 1-3.  Clinical p...
Article

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a multisystem disorder characterized by granulomatous panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments that are often associated with neurologic and cutaneous manifestations. Epidemiology Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease usually affects those of Asian, Middle Eastern, ...
Article

Locked-in syndrome

Locked-in syndrome is one of the brainstem stroke syndromes and can occur as a result of a pontine stroke that damages the ventral brainstem, pyramidal bundles and corticobulbar tracts 5. Clinical presentation Individuals who are "locked-in" are conscious with preserved cognitive function but ...
Article

Pendred syndrome

Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by a euthyroid goiter associated with sensorineural hearing loss.  Epidemiology It is considered the most common form of syndromic hearing loss and accounts for upwards of 10% of hereditary deafness. Pathology Ther...
Article

Sotos syndrome

Sotos syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome considered as a form of cerebral gigantism, mainly characterized by prenatal and postnatal overgrowth. Epidemiology There is no ethnic group predominance and has been detected throughout the world. The prevalence is not known but is estimated to...
Article

Branchio-oto-renal dysplasia

Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) dysplasia, syndrome, or spectrum disorder is a rare syndromic disorder characterized by cervical branchial apparatus anomalies, ear malformations, and renal anomalies. If there are no renal anomalies, then it is more likely to be branchiootic dysplasia. Pathology When ...
Article

Frontonasal dysplasia

Frontonasal dysplasia, also known as median cleft face syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by midline defects involving the face, head, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Frontonasal dysplasia is considered to be a very rare condition, with approximately 100 cases having been repo...
Article

Van der Woude syndrome

Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae/pits with cleft lip and/or palate. It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1 and affected individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries an aut...
Article

Stickler syndrome

Stickler syndrome refers to a group of disorders primarily affecting connective tissue. Epidemiology Its incidence is 1 in 7500 live births 5. Clinical presentation Described features include: Ophthalmologic congenital or early-onset cataract congenital vitreous anomaly, rhegmatogenous re...
Article

Acrocephalosyndactyly

Acrocephalosyndactyly syndromes (ACS) are a rare group of disorders collectively characterized by: calvarial anomalies, e.g. craniosynostoses digital anomalies, e.g. syndactyly Classification While there can be some overlap in features, they can be primarily classified into the following maj...
Article

Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multisystem manifestations. Epidemiology The approximate worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 800 live births 15. The...
Article

Goldenhar syndrome

Goldenhar syndrome, also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS), Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome or facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia, is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by abnormalities of the ears, eyes and vertebrae. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1 in 3000-5000...
Article

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an inner ear abnormality, where a clinical disequilibrium phenomenon is associated with the absence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal (SSCC). Notably, this CT finding has also been described in ~10% of individuals w...
Article

Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
Article

Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy or Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease, is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at pre...
Article

Allgrove syndrome

Allgrove syndrome (also known as triple A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive condition that consists of three main findings: achalasia alacrima ACTH insensitivity
Article

Madelung disease

Madelung disease, also known as Madelung-Launois-Bensaude syndrome or neck lipomatosis or multiple symmetric lipomatosis, is a rare benign entity clinically characterized by the presence of multiple and symmetric, non-encapsulated masses of fatty tissue, usually involving the neck and the upper ...
Article

Alport syndrome

Alport syndrome is an X-linked dominant disease characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, renal disease and, at times, ocular lesions. Clinical presentation hematuria sensorineural hearing loss: typically high frequency 2 ocular abnormalities anterior lenticonus: most common ...
Article

Terson syndrome

Terson syndrome refers to vitreous hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, some authors include retinal hemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Epidemiology Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-50% ...
Article

Marine-Lenhart syndrome

Marine-Lenhart syndrome refers to a variant of Graves disease where there are coexistent autonomous thyroid nodules. It is better described as Graves disease with coexistent multinodular goiter or nodular Graves disease 1.  Epidemiology The syndrome is rare with reported prevalence somewhere b...
Article

Cogan syndrome

Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of young adults that is primarily characterized by 1,4,6: inflammatory eye disease (classically interstitial keratitis) 6 audiovestibular dysfunction (similar to Meniere disease) 6 Epidemiology Cogan syndrome is rare and can occur in people of any age and ...
Article

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), refers to a small to medium vessel necrotizing pulmonary vasculitis. It is also classified under the spectrum of eosinophilic lung disease and as a type of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosi...
Article

Vernet syndrome

Vernet syndrome, also known as jugular foramen syndrome, is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to compression from a jugular foramen lesion, such as a glomus jugulare tumor, schwannoma, or metastasis 2. Clinical presentation It consists of motor paralysis of: glossopharyngeal nerve ...
Article

Collet-Sicard syndrome

Collet-Sicard syndrome, also known as condylar jugular syndrome, is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesion at the jugular foramen 1,2. Clinical presentation Vernet syndrome, consisting of motor paralysis of glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) vagus ner...
Article

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Plummer-Vinson syndrome, also known as the Paterson-Brown Kelly syndrome, is a very rare condition which comprises a classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia and upper esophageal webs. Epidemiology The incidence of Plummer-Vinson syndrome has plummeted in the past fifty years and thi...
Article

Silent sinus syndrome

The silent sinus syndrome represents maxillary sinus atelectasis that results in painless enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial asymmetry 1-3. Some authors restrict the term to patients with no history of sinusitis, trauma or surgery 2. Some authors suggest that is part of the spectrum of chronic ...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
Article

Mikulicz syndrome

Mikulicz syndrome was at one time considered to be a form of Sjögren syndrome (type 1), however, it is now considered to be on the IgG4-related disease spectrum.  Terminology Mikulicz syndrome may also be referred to by numerous other eponyms as well as the rather verbose "sicca syndrome witho...
Article

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS), sometimes called Williams-Beuren syndrome, is characterized by some or all of the following features: craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies) oral abnormalities short stature (50% of cases) mild to moderate intellectual disability  supravalvular aortic stenosis ...
Article

Young syndrome

Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however, the underlying pathogenesis is yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoospermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly r...
Article

Enlarged vestibular aqueduct

Enlarged vestibular aqueduct, also known as large vestibular aqueduct or large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome or anomaly, is the most common inner ear malformation associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Clinical presentation The syndrome manifests as sensorineural or mixed hearing lo...
Article

Morning glory syndrome (eye)

Morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA), also known as morning glory syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation of the optic nerve which is frequently associated with midline abnormalities of the brain and skull 1. Epidemiology Morning glory disc anomaly is rare and is more commonly found in female...
Article

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) (also known as Beals syndrome) is a rare connective tissue disorder that bears phenotypic similarities to Marfan syndrome, but is genetically distinct. Affected individuals have arachnodactyly, muscle contractures and ear anomalies, but without any oc...
Article

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease refers to the clinical constellation of 1,2: hypersensitivity to aspirin (and other NSAIDs) nasal polyposis / rhinosinusitis asthma Terminology Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory d...
Article

Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome (also known as Kartagener-Afzelius syndrome) is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterized by abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyski...
Article

Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren syndrome, or Sjögren disease, is an autoimmune condition of the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva. Epidemiology Sjögren syndrome is the second most common autoimmune disorder after rheumatoid arthritis. There is a recognized female predilection with F:M ratio of ~9:1. Patie...
Article

Bogorad syndrome

Bogorad syndrome also known as the syndrome of crocodile tears, is characterized by residual facial paralysis with profuse lacrimation during eating. This phenomenon is also known as paroxysmal lacrimation or the gustolachrymal reflex. It is caused by a misdirection of the regenerating autonomic...
Article

Leontiasis ossea

Leontiasis ossea is largely a historical term used to describe a number of conditions that result in the affected patient's face resembling that of a lion. Although it is most frequently associated with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, it has a broader meaning encompassing other lesions that have...
Article

Treacher Collins syndrome

Treacher Collins syndrome, also known as mandibulofacial dysostosis, is an autosomal dominant genetic abnormality and results from bilateral malformations of first and second branchial arches (see branchial apparatus). Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 50,000 live b...
Article

Aicardi syndrome

Aicardi syndrome is a rare severe developmental disorder. It results from an X-linked genetic defect that is fatal in males and therefore only manifests in females (except for rare 47, XXY cases). Terminology Aicardi syndrome is distinct from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome although both are named ...
Article

Wyburn-Mason syndrome

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (also known as Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome) is a rare, nonhereditary neurocutaneous disorder that typically presents with unilateral vascular malformations that primarily involve the brain, orbits and facial structures. It is currently classified as a craniofacial arteri...
Article

Wildervanck syndrome

Wildervanck syndrome, also known as cervico-ocular-acoustic dysplasia, consists of the triad of: Klippel-Feil syndrome congenital ossicular anomalies: usually diffuse ossicular ankylosis and sensorineural deafness Duane syndrome: an ocular motility disturbance due to fibrosis of the extraocul...
Article

Pancoast syndrome

Pancoast syndrome (historically known as Ciuffini-Pancoast-Tobías syndrome, Hare syndrome or variation thereof) results from involvement of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain by a Pancoast tumor or, less commonly, from other tumors - or even non-malignant disease - involving the lung apex...
Article

PHACE syndrome

PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of: P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation) H: hemangiomas A: arterial anomalies C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterized by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, also known as Sipple syndrome, accounts for most cases of MEN2 and is characterized by: pheochromocytomas: in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients, aggressive, and may secrete calciton...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands.  There are other multiple...
Article

Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome (also known as postanginal septicemia) refers to thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein(s) with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemio...
Article

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterized by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw axillary an...
Article

Heerfordt syndrome

Heerfordt syndrome, also known as Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome or uveoparotid fever, is a variant of sarcoidosis, comprising of: fever parotid enlargement facial palsy ocular involvement (anterior uveitis) Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, as only isolated case reports exist....
Article

Gradenigo syndrome

Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of: suppurative otitis media with persistent otorrhea and ear pain abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary div...

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