Seminal vesicle stones
Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Joachim Feger had no recorded disclosures.View Joachim Feger's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Dennis Odhiambo Agolah had no financial relationships to ineligible companies to disclose.View Dennis Odhiambo Agolah's current disclosures
Seminal vesicle stones or calculi refer to solid mineralized pieces of material within the seminal vesicles.
On this page:
Seminal vesicle calculi are rare and have been mainly reported after the age of 40 years 1.
Seminal vesicle calculi are often associated with hematospermia.
The diagnosis of seminal vesicle stones can be conveniently made by typical imaging features on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), CT or MRI 1,2. They might be also diagnosed on a pathological specimen.
Clinically seminal vesicle stones can present with hematospermia, hematuria, dysuria pelvic, perineal, testicular or ejaculatory pain and rarely spermolithiasis 1-4.
Seminal vesicle stones can consist of the following 3:
The exact etiology of seminal vesicle stones seems to be unclear, possible etiological factors include the following 1,2:
diverse inflammatory or infectious processes e.g. seminal vesiculitis
ejaculatory duct obstruction and neoplasms
Seminal vesicle stones are visible on different imaging methods including transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), CT and MRI as well-defined, intraluminal structures within the seminal vesicles 1,2. They might be calcified or non-calcified.
On transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) seminal vesicle stones have been described as well-circumscribed hyperechoic foci with or without acoustic shadowing that can be distinguished from the typical architecture of the seminal vesicles 1.
Computed tomography is able to depict seminal vesicle calculi within the seminal vesicle lumen in different planes and is especially useful if they are calcified.
On prostate or pelvic MRI, seminal vesicle stones can be visualized as polygonal intraluminal structures surrounded by seminal fluid or associated with hematospermia 2,4.
DWI: lack of diffusion restriction
DCE (Gd): no enhancement
The radiological report should include a description of the following:
location form and extent of intraluminal stones
seminal vesicle hemorrhage
associated findings and etiologies e.g. ejaculatory duct obstruction or prostate cancer
Treatment and prognosis
Management of seminal vesicle calculi includes surgical intervention for stone removal. Different surgical approaches include transurethral resection of ejaculatory ducts (TURED), transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (TRU-SVS) endoscope laser lithotripsy, laparoscopic, robot-assisted and open approaches 1,2,4.
History and etymology
The first case report of seminal vesicle stones was made by White in 1928 1.
Conditions that may be mimicking the clinical presentation or imaging appearance of seminal vesicle calculi include 1:
seminal vesicle calcification
ejaculatory duct calcification
- 1. Zaidi S, Gandhi J, Seyam O et al. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Seminal Vesicle Stones. Current Urology. 2019;12(3):113-20. doi:10.1159/000489429 - Pubmed
- 2. Williams S, Christodoulidou M, Nigam R. Large Bilateral Seminal Vesicle Calculi Presenting with Spermolithiasis. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017:bcr-2017-219630. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-219630 - Pubmed
- 3. Christodoulidou M, Parnham A, Nigam R. Diagnosis and Management of Symptomatic Seminal Vesicle Calculi. Scandinavian Journal of Urology. 2017;51(4):237-44. doi:10.1080/21681805.2017.1295398 - Pubmed
- 4. Trivedi J, Sutherland T, Page M. Incidental Findings in and Around the Prostate on Prostate MRI: A Pictorial Review. Insights Imaging. 2021;12(1):37. doi:10.1186/s13244-021-00979-7 - Pubmed
- 5. Dagur G, Warren K, Suh Y, Singh N, Khan S. Detecting Diseases of Neglected Seminal Vesicles Using Imaging Modalities: A Review of Current Literature. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2016;14(5):293-302. PMC4910035 - Pubmed
- 6. Reddy M & Verma S. Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and Their MRI Characteristics. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2014;4:61. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.143734 - Pubmed