Septic-embolic encephalitis (SEE), also known as septic-embolic brain abscess, refers to a focal or diffuse brain infection, ischaemic and haemorrhagic damages following an infective thromboembolism from any part of the body. It is usually caused by bacterial infections from endocarditis.
Septic-embolic encephalitis must be differentiated from sepsis-associated encephalopathy, which is a clinical syndrome related to a diffuse brain dysfunction in the context of sepsis without overt central nervous system (CNS) infection 5.
In most series, CNS involvement during the course of infective endocarditis occurs in ~30% (range 20-40%) of cases 2.
Ischaemic stroke is the most common mode of presentation of patients with SEE 1. Symptoms can vary from headache to unconsciousness, the most common are 1,3:
- toxic encephalopathy: characterised by mental status changes and psychosis
- cardiac disease
- drug addiction (intravenous drugs)
- immunocompromised patients
- central venous catheter
- arteriovenous shunts
Some aetiological agents can get in the CNS carried by arterial blood from multiple systemic infectious foci 1-4:
- left-sided cardiac infections (i.e. aortic and mitral valve endocarditis)
- pulmonary infections
- infections in other body sites that can get the arterial circulation by an arteriovenous shunt
There are three main pathogenic mechanisms of brain damage 4:
- occlusion of cerebral arteries by septic and thrombotic emboli (e.g. arising from heart valve vegetations): it can result in focal ischaemia, cerebral haemorrhage, or both
- meninges, brain parenchyma, or vascular walls infection by septic emboli or bacteremia; numerous microabscesses can be seen and occasionally they coalesce to form space-occupying macroabscesses
- toxic and immune-mediated injury
- Staphylococcus aureus (most common)
- Streptococcus viridans
- fungal infection
In almost 90% of cases, SEE findings occur in the distribution of middle cerebral artery (MCA) (due to favoured anatomy), and rarely in the posterior circulation 1.
MRI is superior to CT in depicting the different stages of SEE evolution.
Hypodense areas of ischaemic infarction along with hyperdense haemorrhagic areas may be spotted in the anterior circulation territories. Contrast-enhanced images are essential to evaluate abscess formation.
Local arteritis can promote mycotic aneurysm formation and vascular rupture.
Treatment and prognosis
Prompt administration of empiric antibiotics until the results of culture are available is vital. In cases that emboli continue to form despite antimicrobial treatment, surgical heart valve replacement may be necessary.
Mycotic aneurysm: many regress spontaneously under clinical treatment, however, persistent aneurysms may need surgical or endovascular treatment 4.
- 1. Neurocritical Care. Springer. ISBN:3642876048. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Sonneville R, Mourvillier B, Bouadma L et-al. Management of neurological complications of infective endocarditis in ICU patients. Ann Intensive Care. 2011;1 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-10 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Neurocritical Care. Springer. ISBN:3642876048. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Mumenthaler M, Mattle H. Neurology. Thieme. (2011) ISBN:1604061359. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Gofton TE, Young GB. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012;8 (10): 557-66. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2012.183 - Pubmed citation
Infections of the central nervous system
- classification by aetiology
- eastern equine encephalitis
- enterovirus rhomboencephalitis
- flavivirus encephalitis
herpes virus family
- herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis
- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis
- varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis
- cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis
- human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis
- HIV CNS manifestations
- HTLV-1-associated myelopathy
- JC virus
- measles encephalitis
- Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis
- rabies encephalitis
- CNS listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
- CNS nocardiosis (Nocardia spp)
- CNS tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
- neurosyphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
- cerebral amoebiasis
- cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
- cerebral sparganosis (Spirometra mansonoides)
- neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)
- neurohydatidosis (Echinococcus spp)
- neurotoxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
- others or those with possible infectious aetiologies
- classification by location
- meninges and ventricular system
- brain parenchyma, brainstem, and spinal cord
- classification by aetiology