Serratus anterior muscle
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Serratus anterior muscle is one of the four muscles of the pectoral region.
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- origin: lateral surface of 1st to 8th or 9th ribs
- insertion: medial border of the scapula
- innervation: long thoracic nerve
- draws the scapula anteriorly against the chest wall
- when the scapula is fixed, assists in respiration
The serratus anterior muscle arises from the lateral 1st to 8th or 9th ribs as muscle slips that run posterosuperiorly around the chest wall, under the scapula to insert onto the costal surface of the medial scapular border 2.
Injury to the long thoracic nerve during axillary surgery causes winging of the scapula as serratus anterior no longer holds the scapula against the chest wall.
Serratus anterior injuries can be seen in baseball pitchers and rowers, with varying degrees of severity including avulsion from the origin at the ribs 2.
- attachment to the 10th rib
- absence of attachments to the 1st rib
- union with fibers of the insertion of the levator scapulae, external intercostal or external oblique muscles
- 1. Schuenke M, Schulte E, Schumacher U et-al. General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Thieme. (2010) ISBN:1604062924. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Sowmya L. Varada, Charles A. Popkin, Elizabeth M. Hecht, Christopher S. Ahmad, William N. Levine, Marc Brown, Tony T. Wong. Athletic Injuries of the Thoracic Cage. (2021) RadioGraphics. doi:10.1148/rg.2021200105