Short maxillary length
A short maxillary length can result from many congenital and acquired causes. If seen in an antenatal ultrasound scan, it is often considered to have a high association with trisomy 21 1.
Many conditions that can cause midfacial hypoplasia will result in a short maxillary length. These include
- 18q deletion syndrome
- Alport syndrome 3
- fetal alcohol syndrome
- fetal valproate syndrome
- fetal Warfarin syndrome
- Stickler syndrome group
In acquired situations (i.e. in an adult), previous surgery (e.g. for tumour resection) and trauma are important considerations.
- 1. Cicero S, Curcio P, Rembouskos G et-al. Maxillary length at 11-14 weeks of gestation in fetuses with trisomy 21. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004;24 (1): 19-22. doi:10.1002/uog.1077 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Kurjak A. Donald School textbook of ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. (2008) ISBN:8184482027. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Rodriguez JD, Bhat SS, Meloni I et-al. Intellectual disability, midface hypoplasia, facial hypotonia, and Alport syndrome are associated with a deletion in Xq22.3. Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 2010;152A (3): 713-7. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33208 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Nyberg DA, McGahan JP, Pretorius DH. Diagnostic imaging of fetal anomalies. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2003) ISBN:0781732115. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon