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At the time the article was created Henry Knipe had no recorded disclosures.View Henry Knipe's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Craig Hacking had the following disclosures:
- Philips Australia, Paid speaker at Philips Spectral CT events (ongoing)
These were assessed during peer review and were determined to not be relevant to the changes that were made.View Craig Hacking's current disclosures
The sigmoid colon is the continuation of the descending colon.
After the distal descending colon has curved medially it enters the pelvis, where it gains a mesentery and is then called the sigmoid colon. It measures approximately 15 cm in length.
The sigmoid colon continues as the rectum when it loses its mesentery, at approximately S3 level.
- superiorly: loops of small intestine
- posteriorly: left internal iliac artery and vein, left ureter, piriformis muscle, sacrum, sacral plexus
- similarly named veins drain into the inferior mesenteric vein
- sympathetic: inferior mesenteric plexus
- parasympathetic: via pelvic splanchnic nerves (from S2-S4) to the inferior mesenteric plexus
Lymphatics travel with vessels to the inferior mesenteric group.