Sine qua non
Citation, DOI & article data
"Sine qua non" is a phrase used in radiology, and more widely in clinical medicine, to refer to a symptom, sign, radiology finding, etc., which is absolutely necessary for a diagnosis to be made.
For example, if one is querying a thoracic aortic dissection then the presence of a visible dissection flap is a sine qua non for the diagnosis to be true, i.e. the presence of a flap is absolutely necessary to make the diagnosis.
Caution is required, however because:
- as any experienced clinician knows diseases can rarely present in a previously unreported way. Therefore a sine qua non today, might not be one tomorrow.
- absence of a finding on imaging does not always equate to absence of the finding in reality
The pronunciation of the word 'sine' is SI-NAY; in classical Latin all letters are pronounced, i.e. the 'e' is not silent.
History and etymology
"Sine qua non" is a Latin term which literally means "without which not".
- 1. Ehrlich E. A Dictionary of Latin Tags and Phrases. ISBN-13: 978-0709031451.
- 2. John C. Traupman. The Bantam New College Latin & English Dictionary. (2018) ISBN: 9780553590128