Single umbilical artery
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Single umbilical artery (SUA) results when there is a congenital absence of either the right or left umbilical artery. In the usual situation, there are paired umbilical arteries. For unknown reasons, the absence of the left umbilical artery is much more common (~70%).
The estimated prevalence is ~0.4-1% of pregnancies 5,6,10. There may be an increased incidence of twin pregnancies and maternal diabetes.
The occurrence of a single umbilical artery is thought to be due to secondary atresia or atrophy rather than primary agenesis of the artery. The remaining single artery is often quite large and approaches the size of the umbilical vein (which is usually larger than the artery).
In ~65% (range 57-75%) of cases, a single umbilical artery is present in isolation 1,2.
When found in isolation, it is usually not of clinical significance but there is an increased incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) 6 (~15%).
Recognized associations are thought to be present in ~35% (range 25-43%) of cases:
- lesser number of coils in the umbilical cord
- umbilical arterial aneurysm
- twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence
- increased incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
When found with other fetal anomalies, it can be also be associated with:
- chromosomal anomalies
- persistent right umbilical vein
congenital renal anomalies
- renal agenesis: occurs usually on the side where the artery is absent 10
- velamentous insertion of the cord
Some suggest that complex congenital and chromosomal abnormalities are found almost exclusively when the left umbilical artery is absent 9
This is the imaging investigation of choice and an SUA is often detected incidentally on ultrasound. High-resolution ultrasound has a sensitivity and specificity approaching 100% 1. Sonographic features include:
- two vessels within the umbilical cord (one artery and one vein) instead of the usual three (best seen in cross-section)
- the single artery is often larger in caliber than normal and approaches the diameter of the accompanying vein
- examination of the fetal pelvis will demonstrate only one umbilical artery lateral to the bladder in its course toward the umbilical cord
- 1. Pierce BT, Dance VD, Wagner RK et-al. Perinatal outcome following fetal single umbilical artery diagnosis. J Matern Fetal Med. 2001;10 (1): 59-63. J Matern Fetal Med (link) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Geipel A, Germer U, Welp T et-al. Prenatal diagnosis of single umbilical artery: determination of the absent side, associated anomalies, Doppler findings and perinatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;15 (2): 114-7. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.2000.00055.x - Pubmed citation
- 3. Parilla BV, Tamura RK, Macgregor SN et-al. The clinical significance of a single umbilical artery as an isolated finding on prenatal ultrasound. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;85 (4): 570-2. doi:10.1016/0029-7844(94)00451-I - Pubmed citation
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- 6. Hua M, Odibo AO, Macones GA et-al. Single umbilical artery and its associated findings. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115 (5): 930-4. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181da50ed - Pubmed citation
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- 8. Vlietinck RF, Thiery M, Orye E et-al. Significance of the single umbilical artery. A clinical, radiological, chromosomal, and dermatoglyphic study. Arch. Dis. Child. 1972;47 (254): 639-42. doi:10.1136/adc.47.254.639 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 9. Abuhamad AZ, Shaffer W, Mari G et-al. Single umbilical artery: does it matter which artery is missing? Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1995;173 (3 Pt 1): 728-32. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (link) - Pubmed citation
- 10. Entezami M, Albig M, Knoll U et-al. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Fetal Anomalies. Thieme. (2003) ISBN:1588902129. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 11. Lubusky M, Dhaifalah I, Prochazka M et-al. Single umbilical artery and its siding in the second trimester of pregnancy: relation to chromosomal defects. Prenat. Diagn. 2007;27 (4): 327-31. doi:10.1002/pd.1672 - Pubmed citation