Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune condition of exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva.

Sjögren syndrome is the second most common autoimmune disorder after rheumatoid arthritis. There is a recognised female predilection with F:M ratio of  ≈ 9:1. Patients typically present around the 4th to 5th decades.

Clinically, it manifests as

It is a chronic autoimmune disorder involving mainly the salivary and lacrimal glands and is associated with hyperactivity of the B-lymphocytes and with autoantibody and immune complex production. 

Approximately 40% of cases occur in isolation. Known associations include

  • anti SSa(Ro) antibody
  • anti SSb(La) antibody
  • sjögren A antibody
  • sjögren B antibody

Parotid gland involvement may give a salt and pepper appearance or a honeycomb appearance. A change in size of the lacrimal glands associated with accelerated fat deposition may also be seen 3.

  • early stagethe gland can be normal or become enlarged and hyperechoic 5 
  • late stages: may characteristically show a multicystic or reticular pattern within an atrophic gland 5

One of the complications of this syndrome is the development of malignant lymphoma.

This condition is named after Swedish ophthalmologist Henrik Sjögren (1899–1986) although it was first described by WB Hadden and JW Hutchinson in 1871 13

Share article

Article information

rID: 6885
System: Head & Neck
Section: Syndromes
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Sjogren Syndrome
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Sicca syndrome

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Cases and figures

  • Drag
    Case 1
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 2
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 3: on sialogram
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 4
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.

    Alert accept

    Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

    Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.