Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea:



  • C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax
    • ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines
    • lung point present 1
  • H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema)
    • diffuse bilateral anterior B lines associated with lung sliding 1
    • more than three B lines in two zones 
  • E: effusion (pericardial effusion
    • pericardial effusion and collapsed right ventricle +/- enlarged IVC 
  • S: sepsis (pneumonia)
    • air bronchograms / B lines / subpleural consolidation 
    • fluid bronchograms / pleural effusion 
    • if the patient is septic look at IVC to assess fluid status 
  • T: thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism / deep vein thrombosis
    • PE: subpleural consolidation (size 0.5-3 cm) and right heart strain 
    • DVT: non-compressible vein in femoral or popliteal zone 2
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Article information

rID: 45897
Systems: Chest, Cardiac
Sections: Mnemonics, Approach
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • CHEST (mnemonic)

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