SPACE (MRI sequence)
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The SPACE MRI sequence, is a spin echo type MRI sequence, which creates high spatial resolution three-dimensional datasets. SPACE is an abbreviation for Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip angle Evolution. The sequence was developed by Siemens.
The SPACE sequence is a single slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence with a slab selective, variable excitation pulse.
It is useful in acquiring high resolution three-dimensional datasets with contrasts similar to those obtained from two-dimensional T1-weighted, T2-weighted, proton density, and dark fluid protocols at 1.5 T and 3 T. Images are obtained within a clinically acceptable time frame and without specific absorption rate limitations.
It uses non-selective, short refocusing pulse trains that consist of radiofrequency pulses with variable flip angles, allowing for very high turbo factors (>100) and high sampling efficiency.
SPACE is able to produce high resolution isotropic images that can be reconstructed in multiple planes.
This sequence provides high sensitivity to low gadolinium concentration, and is considered less sensitive to susceptibility 4, flow, and chemical shift artifacts, making it superior to conventional turbo spin echo.
T1 SPACE sequence is superior than T1 MPRAGE in detecting lesions in dural and sulcal spaces because it is able to suppress normal blood vessel signals in these areas. Post contrast T1 SPACE is also more useful than T1 MPRAGE in assessing leptomeningeal abnormalities 5.
It is useful in:
central nervous system (CNS) imaging: especially of the CSF spaces or in multiple sclerosis 1
hepatobiliary imaging (e.g. MRCP) 3
- 1. Algin O & Ozmen E. Heavily T2W 3D-SPACE Images for Evaluation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Containing Spaces. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2012;22(1):74-5. doi:10.4103/0971-3026.95410 - Pubmed
- 2. Chellathurai A, Subbiah K, Abdul Ajis B, Balasubramaniam S, Gnanasigamani S. Role of 3D SPACE Sequence and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in the Evaluation of Hydrocephalus and Treatment-Oriented Refined Classification of Hydrocephalus. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2018;28(4):385-94. doi:10.4103/ijri.IJRI_161_18 - Pubmed
- 3. Nakaura T, Kidoh M, Maruyama N et al. Usefulness of the SPACE Pulse Sequence at 1.5T MR Cholangiography: Comparison of Image Quality and Image Acquisition Time with Conventional 3D-TSE Sequence. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;38(5):1014-9. doi:10.1002/jmri.24033 - Pubmed
- 4. Danieli L, Riccitelli G, Distefano D et al. Brain Tumor-Enhancement Visualization and Morphometric Assessment: A Comparison of MPRAGE, SPACE, and VIBE MRI Techniques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2019;40(7):1140-8. doi:10.3174/ajnr.a6096 - Pubmed
- 5. Jeevanandham B, Kalyanpur T, Gupta P, Cherian M. Comparison of Post-Contrast 3D-T1-MPRAGE, 3D-T1-SPACE and 3D-T2-FLAIR MR Images in Evaluation of Meningeal Abnormalities at 3-T MRI. BJR. 2017;90(1074):20160834. doi:10.1259/bjr.20160834 - Pubmed