Citation, DOI and article data
The upper part of the neural tube forms the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. The lower part of the neural tube forms the spinal canal. Dysraphism results when the neural plate does not fuse completely in its lower section.
Spinal dysraphism can be broadly divided into two different clinicoradiological entities 8,9:
- open spinal dysraphism (formerly spina bifida aperta or cystica): occurs when the cord and its covering communicate with the outside; no skin or tissues cover the sac
closed spinal dysraphism (formerly spina bifida occulta): occurs when the cord is covered by other normal mesenchymal elements
- with subcutaneous mass
- without subcutaneous mass
- posterior spina bifida (isolated defect of the posterior neural arch of vertebra)
- intradural lipoma
- filar lipoma
- tight filum terminale
- persistent terminal ventricle
- disorders of midline notochordal integration
- disorders of notochordal formation
Associated abnormalities of mesenchymal development occur often. Hence, lipomas and/or teratomas may be associated with any type.
History and etymology
Dysraphism is formed from the Greek root raphe which means ridge or seam.
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