Spontaneous splenic rupture

Last revised by Dr Mostafa El-Feky on 28 Apr 2021

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) (also known as atraumatic splenic rupture) is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture

Pathology

The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although the rupture of normal spleens (both in size and underlying histology) has been reported 3

Etiology

There is a wide range of underlying causes 1,2:

Radiographic features

Features are similar to splenic trauma with hemoperitoneum and perisplenic hematoma. The spleen is more likely to be enlarged in atraumatic ruptures 3.

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: with hemangioma
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  • Case 1
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  • Case 2: in dialysis patient
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  • Case 3
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  • Case 4: spontaneous
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  • Case 5: post colonoscopy - splenocolic ligament avulsion
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  • Case 6: with multiple myeloma
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  • Case 7
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