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Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part.
Fractures of the sternum are seen in between 3-6.8% of all motor vehicle collisions 1.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) often results in sternal fractures, one autopsy-based study found sternal fractures in 18% patients, 85% in the sternal body 7.
Associated injuries are common, occurring in ~50% (range 33-67%) of patients 1,3:
- rib fractures, sternoclavicular joint dislocation
- mediastinal hemorrhage, pneumothorax, hemothorax, cardiac tamponade, cardiac contusion, pulmonary contusion
- thoracic spine compression fracture
- traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localized tenderness.
Mechanism of injury
Fractures of the sternum can result from both direct and indirect blunt force trauma to the chest with motor vehicle collisions the most common cause 1,3:
- direct: impact on a steering wheel; falls; contact sports; pedestrian vs car accidents; assaults
- indirect: deceleration injuries from motor vehicle accidents; stress fractures; osteoporotic fractures
- non-accidental injuries in children
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Sternal fractures are best detected on dedicated lateral sternal views as lucent cortical breaches with or without displacement. Undisplaced fractures are poorly visualized on plain x-rays.
- can also be used to assess for sternal fractures
- as with plain x-ray, US may show a cortical fracture or step
- just as accurate as lateral radiographs but less reliable in determining displacement 5
- modality of choice; sagittal reformat most sensitive
- can assess for anterior cortical breach and posterior cortical breach, with the latter being associated with more severe neurovascular injuries 3
Treatment and prognosis
Isolated sternal injuries have a very good outcome with conservative management, with most healing in a few months with a very low mortality rate (<1%) 1. However, sternal fractures associated with other injuries have a higher mortality rate.
- 1. Khoriati AA, Rajakulasingam R, Shah R. Sternal fractures and their management. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2013;6 (2): 113-6. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.110763 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Scheyerer MJ, Zimmermann SM, Bouaicha S et-al. Location of sternal fractures as a possible marker for associated injuries. Emerg Med Int. 2013;2013: 407589. doi:10.1155/2013/407589 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Emergency Radiology. Springer. (2007) ISBN:3540689087. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Oikonomou A, Prassopoulos P. CT imaging of blunt chest trauma. Insights Imaging. 2011;2 (3): 281-295. doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0072-9 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 5. Engin G, Yekeler E, Gülogˇlu R et-al. Acta Radiologica. 2000;41 (3): . doi:10.1080/028418500127345280
- 6. Gossner J. Relationship of sternal foramina to vital structures of the chest: a computed tomographic study. Anat Res Int. 2013;2013: 780193. doi:10.1155/2013/780193 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 7. Deliliga A, Chatzinikolaou F, Koutsoukis D, Chrysovergis I, Voultsos P. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) complications encountered in forensic autopsy cases. (2019) BMC emergency medicine. 19 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/s12873-019-0234-5 - Pubmed