Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10 000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and forceps delivery, but may also be seen following head trauma or occur spontaneously. In patients with intracranial haemorrhage or skull fractures, the incidence of subgaleal haemorrhage is increased.
Signs include pallor on inspection. On examination, there may be tachycardia, hypotonia. A fluctuant scalp mass with increasing head circumference may be seen on palpation.
Bleeding occurs as a result of rupture to emissary veins which drain the scalp veins into the dural sinuses.
Due to being superficial to the periosteum, subgaleal haematomas are able to cross suture lines and canvas the entire skull.
- blood of moderate echogenicity
- decreasing echogenicity with time
- not bound by periosteum
- more objective measurement of haematoma volume
- determine presence of an underlying skull fracture
- size of the haematoma
- content of the fluid collection
- presence of an associated fracture
General imaging differential considerations include:
On certain MRI sequences also consider:
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