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At the time the article was created Pablo E. Arriola had no recorded disclosures.View Pablo E. Arriola's current disclosures
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The subscapular artery is the largest branch of the axillary artery.
The subscapular artery originates from the medial surface of the third part of the axillary artery. It passes along the inferior border of the subscapularis muscle and it divides into two branches 1,2:
- Thoracodorsal artery: courses inferiorly along the serratus anterior muscle and posterior to the lateral thoracic artery supplying the intercostal muscles, serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi muscles as well as the skin of the lateral surface of the thorax.
- Circumflex scapular artery (scapular circumflex artery or dorsalis scapulae artery but not to be confused with the dorsal scapular artery): divides into three branches to supply the pectoral girdle.
- subscapularis, supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
- latissimus dorsi muscle
- serratus anterior muscle
The subscapular artery is quite stable with ~85% demonstrating classical anatomy as described above 3, 4. Common variation in anatomy includes:
- arises from second-part of axillary artery (~15%) 3
- absent in ~3% - thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular arteries arise separately from the axillary artery 3
- posterior humeral circumflex artery arising from the subscapular or thoracodorsal arteries 4
- lateral thoracic artery arising from the subscapular artery 4
- 1. Rouviere H. Anatomia Humana. Tronco - Tomo 2. Masson. ISBN:8445813145. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Latarjet M, Liard AR. Anatomia humana/ Human Anatomy. Media Panamericana. ISBN:9500613689. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Jesus RC, Lopes MC, Demarchi GT et-al. The subscapular artery and the thoracodorsal branch: an anatomical study. Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2008;67 (1): 58-62. Pubmed citation
- 4. Garry N & Marquez S. The Subscapular Artery in the Axillary Region: Tracking Its Anatomical Distribution for Clinical Application. FASEB J. 2008;22(S1). doi:10.1096/fasebj.22.1_supplement.586.5