Superior cerebellar artery infarct
Superior cerebellar artery infarcts affect the superior cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellar vermis and parts of the midbrain. The superior cerebellar artery is the most constantly identified vessel arising from the basilar artery with its origin just below the posterior cerebral artery in the distal segment.
Cerebellar infarcts comprise ~2% of all acute brain infarcts. Up to half of these involve the region of the superior cerebellar artery 1.
Cerebellar infarction often presents with non-specific symptoms such as nausea/vomiting, headache and dizziness making initial diagnosis challenging. Superior cerebellar artery infarction can present in two distinct patterns depending on the site of occlusion 3, 4:
- Occlusion at the origin of the artery produces the classic presentation of ipsilateral cerebellar (ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus) and brainstem (Horner’s syndrome) signs associated with a contralateral dissociated sensory impairment. Interestingly this was described initially by Mills over 100 years ago 5.
- Peripheral occlusion presents with solely ipsilateral cerebellar signs.
Pseudotumoral cerebellar infarction, which can be seen in posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction, has not been described for superior cerebellar artery infarcts.
Important causes of cerebellar infarction include atherosclerosis, cardiogenic emboli and vertebral/basilar artery dissections 2. Proximal occlusions of the superior cerebellar arteries are often due to a dissection or thrombosis, with peripheral occlusion typically due to embolisation 3,4.
The imaging features are those of ischaemic stroke in the vascular territory of the superior cerebellar artery: superior vermis, superior surface of the cerebellar hemispheres, much of the cerebellar white matter, and regions of the midbrain.
- 1.T ohgi H, Takahashi S, Chiba K, Hirata Y. Cerebellar infarction. Clinical and neuroimaging analysis in 293 patients. The Tohoku Cerebellar Infarction Study Group. Stroke. 24 (11): 1697-701. Pubmed
- 2. Datar S, Rabinstein AA. Cerebellar infarction. Neurologic clinics. 32 (4): 979-91. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2014.07.007 - Pubmed
- 3.Terao S, Sobue G, Izumi M, Miura N, Takeda A, Mitsuma T. Infarction of superior cerebellar artery presenting as cerebellar symptoms. Stroke. 27 (9): 1679-81. Pubmed
- 4. Terao S, Sobue G, Izumi M, Miura N, Mitsuma T. [Cerebellar infarction in the territory of the superior cerebellar artery, presenting a predominant cerebellar symptom--with special reference to its pathophysiology]. Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology. 35 (3): 256-61. Pubmed
- 5. Mills CK. Preliminary note on a new symptom complex due to lesion of the cerebellum and cerebello-rubro-thalamic system, the main symptoms being ataxia of the upper and lower extremities of one side, and on the other side deafness, paralysis of emotional expression in the face, and loss of the senses of pain, heat and cold over the entire half of the body. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1912; 39:73-76.
Stroke and intracranial haemorrhage
stroke and intracranial haemorrhage
- general discussions
- scoring and classification systems
- by region
- hemispheric infarcts
- frontal lobe infarct
- parietal lobe infarct
- temporal lobe infarct
- occipital lobe infarct
- internal capsule infarct
- ataxic hemiparesis syndrome: MCA perforators or basilar artery perforators
- lacunar infarct
- thalamic infarct
- cerebellar infarct
- midbrain infarct
- pontine infarct
- medullary infarct
- acute spinal cord ischaemia syndrome
- hemispheric infarcts
- by vascular territory
- anterior cerebral artery infarct
- anterior choroidal artery infarct
- anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct
- basilar artery infarct
- middle cerebral artery infarct
- posterior cerebral artery infarct
- posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct
- superior cerebellar artery infarct
- basal ganglia haemorrhage
- cerebellar haemorrhage
- cerebral contusions
- CTA spot sign
- haemorrhagic venous infarct
- haemorrhagic transformation of an ischaemic infarct
- hypertensive intracranial haemorrhage
- intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)
- lobar haemorrhage
- pontine haemorrhage
- remote cerebellar haemorrhage
- extra-axial haemorrhage
- extradural haemorrhage (EDH)
- intralaminar dural haemorrhage
- subdural haemorrhage (SDH)
- subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)
- intra-axial haemorrhage
- ischaemic stroke