Supernumerary teeth

Last revised by Dr Henry Knipe on 16 Sep 2021

Supernumerary teeth (hyperdontia) are teeth additional to the standard primary or permanent dentition.

The term supplemental tooth may be used when the supernumerary tooth resembles its associated normal tooth and the term peridens may be used for an ectopically erupted (e.g. buccal or lingually) supernumerary tooth 3. Mesiodens refers to a supernumerary tooth in the midline between the central incisors 4.

Supernumerary teeth occur in ~2.5% (range 0.1-5.3%) of the population with a 2:1 M:F in adults with permanent teeth 1,3.

Supernumerary teeth can be asymptomatic, although can become complicated with failed eruption, root resorption, cyst formation, and/or displacement/impaction/crowding of adjacent teeth 6.

Multiple supernumerary teeth are associated with 2,3:

The etiology of supernumerary teeth is unknown 3. They may arise anywhere in the mandible or maxilla and may be:

  • unilateral or bilateral
  • single or multiple
    • multiple more likely in the anterior maxilla and mandibular premolar regions 6
  • erupted or unerupted

The following information should be included 6:

  • type and location
  • shape
  • position in relation to normal tooth eruption
  • erupted or impacted
  • affect on adjacent teeth, e.g. root resorption, malpostion, dysmorphia
  • for mesiodons: relationship with nasal cavity floor, nasopalatine canal, alveolar cortical plates

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: intra-oral photograph
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  • Case 1
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  • Case 2: mesiodens
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  • Case 3
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  • Case 4: supplemental tooth
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  • Case 5: cone beam CT
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  • Supernumerary nasal tooth
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