Swan neck deformity (fingers)

Swan neck deformity is a musculoskeletal manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis presenting in a digit, with the combination of:

  • hyperextension of a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint
  • flexion of a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint


The swan neck deformity characterized by hyperextension of the PIP and flexion of the DIP joints is due to the imbalance of muscle forces 6.

Swan neck deformity can present in 3,4:

See also

Inspired signs

Article information

rID: 21572
Section: Signs, Gamuts
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Swan neck type deformity

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: a swan's neck
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  • Case 1: post traumatic
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  • RA

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    Case 2: rheumatoid arthritis
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  • Case 3: lupus arthropathy
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